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Religion makes people who they are.
A better example of someone who was a realist but took religious formsof life as a central reference point is John Clayton (see especiallyhis Religions, Reasons and Gods: Essays in Cross-CulturalPhilosophy of Religion).
These arguments focus oncharacteristics of the cosmos that seem to reflect the design orintentionality of God or, more modestly, of one or more powerful,intelligent God-like agents. Part of the argument may be formulated asproviding evidence that the cosmos is the sort of reality that wouldbe produced by an intelligent being, and then arguing that positingthis source is more reasonable than agnosticism or denying it. As inthe case of the cosmological argument, the defender of theteleological argument may want to claim only to be giving us somereason for thinking there is a God. Note the way the various argumentsmight then be brought to bear on each other. If successful, theteleological argument may provide some reason for thinking that theFirst Cause of the cosmological argument is purposive, while theontological argument provides some reason for thinking that it makessense to posit a being that has Divine attributes and necessarilyexists. Behind all of them an argument from religious experience mayprovide some initial reasons to seek further support for a religiousconception of the cosmos and to question the adequacy ofnaturalism.
Does religion cause war essay outline Library of Congress
In addition to the expansion of philosophy of religion to take intoaccount a wider set of religions, the field has also seen an expansionin terms of methodology. Philosophers of religion havere-discovered medieval philosophy—the new translations andcommentaries of medieval Christian, Jewish, and Islamic texts haveblossomed. There is now a self-conscious, deliberate effort tocombine work on the concepts in religious belief alongside a criticalunderstanding of their social and political roots (the work of Foucaulthas been influential on this point), feminist philosophy of religionhas been especially important in re-thinking what may be called theethics of methodology and, as this is in some respects the most currentdebate in the field, it is a fitting point to end this entry byhighlighting the work of Pamela Sue Anderson and others.
Hick's work since the early 1980's provided an impetus for not takingwhat appears to be religious conflict as outright contradictions. Headvanced a philosophy of religion that paid careful attention to thehistorical and social context. By doing so, Hick thought the apparentconflict between seeing the Real as the personal or the impersonalreality could be reconciled (see Hick 2004, 2006).
What we are then left with in the realm of religion is ethics.
At least two reasons may support recent non-realism. First, ithas some credibility based on the sociology of religion. In thepractice of religion it appears that we have something more (one mightwell say something deeper) than “mere” metaphysicaltheorizing. Religion seems pre-eminently to be focused upon howwe live. Phillips has examined different religious practices suchas prayer and the belief in an afterlife, concluding that both areintelligible because the motives behind each can be held intact withoutany of the metaphysical “baggage” traditionally linked withthem. For example, prayer to God by parents for the recovery of achild's health may be understood as an expression of theiranguish and an effort to center their hope on the child's gettingbetter, and not as an attempt to persuade God to violate thelaws of nature by miraculously healing their child.
A second reason that might be offered is that the classical andcontemporary arguments for specific views of God have seemedunsuccessful to many philosophers (though not to all, as observed insection 4.2, below). Tilghman takes this line and argues that ifthe traditional arguments for God's existence are re-interpretedas part of religious life and not treated as if they were adjudicatingmetaphysical truth-claims, then they have an intelligibility and forcethat they otherwise lack.
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Religion was part of the state constitution....
In the midst of the new work on religious traditions, there has been asteady, growing representation of non-monotheistic traditions. Anearly proponent of this expanded format was Ninian Smart, who, throughmany publications, scholarly as well as popular, secured philosophiesof Hinduism and Buddhism as components in the standard canon ofEnglish-speaking philosophy of religion.
People believe faith is worth more to people then religion.
Another burgeoning question in recent years is whether the cognitivescience of religion (CSR) has significance for the truth orrationality of religious commitment. According to CSR, belief insupernatural agents appears to be cognitively natural (Barrett 2004,Keleman 2004, Dennett 2006, De Cruz, H., & De Smedt, J. 2010) andeasy to spread (Boyer 2001). The naturalness of religion thesis hasled some, including Alvin Plantinga it seems (2011: 60), to imply that we have scientific evidence forCalvin's . But others have argued thatCSR can intensify the problem of divine hiddenness, since diversereligious concepts are cognitively natural and early humans seem tohave lacked anything like a theistic concept (Marsh 2013). There aremany other questions being investigated about CSR, such as whether itprovides a debunking challenge to religion (Murray and Schloss 2009),whether it poses a cultural challenge for religious outlooks likeSchellenberg's Ultimism (Marsh forthcoming), and whether it challengeshuman dignity (Audi 2013). Needless to say, at the present time,anyhow, there is nothing like a clear consensus on whether CSR shouldbe seen as worrisome, welcome, or neither, by religious believers.
Religion has the power to cause wars, such as the Catholic Crusades.
Two interesting new, rather different developments in debate over theevidence for God's existence need to be observed. John Schellenberghas developed what may be called the “hiddenness of Godobjection.” Schellenberg argues that perfect love necessarilybelongs to any personal Divine being, and that such perfect loveentails openness to a personal relationship with the Divine being, arelationship that would require creatures to know or at least beaware of the Divine being. Schellenberg then contends that the factthat there are many nonbelievers in this God of love who would notresist God's disclosure (whether through religious experience orargument) is evidence against the existence of a personal Divinebeing. The Divine being or God would have been more evident (seeShellenberg 2007; for a reply, see Taliaferro 2009).
Religion is important because it teaches people about themselves.
In different forms the argument may be given a rough edge (forexample, imagine that if you do not believe in God and there is a God,hell is waiting). It may be put as an appeal to individualself-interest (you will be better off) or more generally (believerswhose lives are bound together can realize some of the goodscomprising a mature religious life). Objectors worry about whether oneever is able to bring choices down to just such a narrowselection—for example, to choose either theism ornaturalism. Some think the argument is too thoroughly egotistic andthus offensive to religion. Many of these objections have generatedsome plausible replies (Rescher 1985). For a thoroughgoing explorationof the relevant arguments, see the collection of essays edited byJeffrey Jordan (1994).
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