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uses of nuclear energy - Buzzle
When humans began to raze forests and use the resultant soils to raise crops, they were working their way down through the food chain, no longer harvesting ecosystem detritus but destroying entire ecosystems literally at their roots for short-term human benefit. That practice eventually turned forest ecosystems into deserts. As this essay will survey, that was a rampant problem in all early civilizations. Eventually, humans learned to reach even further back into the ecological horizon as they began burning energy stores that were hundreds of millions of years old; was first and second. They were burned a million times as fast as they were created. In all instances, humans were releasing sunlight energy that had been captured and stored by organisms. In the 20th century, when humans began using nuclear fission, they were going even further back in time and harvesting energy stored via billions of years ago. With each new energy source, humans were harvesting older, more concentrated energy sources, which released far more energy than the previously used source. In each instance, humans plundered the energy source to exhaustion. Humans have not lived in “harmony” with nature since they learned to control fire.
For this essay’s purposes, the most important ecological understanding is that the Sun provides all of earthly life’s energy, either (all except nuclear-powered electric lights driving photosynthesis in greenhouses, as that energy came from dead stars). Today’s hydrocarbon energy that powers our industrial world comes from captured sunlight. Exciting electrons with photon energy, then stripping off electrons and protons and using their electric potential to power biochemical reactions, is what makes Earth’s ecosystems possible. Too little energy, and reactions will not happen (such as ice ages, enzyme poisoning, the darkness of night, food shortages, and lack of key nutrients that support biological reactions), and too much (such as , ionizing radiation, temperatures too high for enzyme activity), and life is damaged or destroyed. The journey of life on Earth has primarily been about adapting to varying energy conditions and finding levels where life can survive. For the many hypotheses about those ancient events and what really happened, the answers are always primarily in energy terms, such as how it was obtained, how it was preserved, and how it was used. For life scientists, that is always the framework, and they devote themselves to discovering how the energy game was played.
Controversy Explodes over Renewable Energy Post …
Some bacteria use Photosystem I and some use Photosystem II. More than two bya, and maybe more than three bya, cyanobacteria used both, and a miraculous instance of innovation tied them together. were then used to strip electrons from water. Although the issue is still controversial regarding when it happened and how, that instance of cyanobacteria's using manganese to strip electrons from water is responsible for oxygenic photosynthesis. It seems that some enzymes that use manganese may have been "drafted" into forming the manganese cluster responsible for splitting water in oxygenic photosynthesis. Water is not an easy molecule to strip an electron from, a single cyanobacterium seems to have “stumbled” into it, and it probably happened only . Once an electron was stripped away from water in Photosystem I, then stripping away a proton (a hydrogen nucleus) essentially removed one hydrogen atom from the water molecule. That proton was then used to drive a “turbine” that manufactures ATP, and wonderful show how those protons drive that enzyme turbine (). Oxygen is a waste product of that innovative ATP factory.
“Shipping nuclear waste internationally poses an increased potential
threat to interception to terrorism (though this has not happened yet
with any of the waste shipped by other countries). Increasing the amount
of waste shipped, particularly in less secure countries, is seen as a
significant increase in risk to nuclear terrorism.” What is the goal of terrorists? To cause terror, and ultimately bring down civilization. What can a terrorist do with nuclear waste that cannot be used in nuclear weapons? Only Plutonium and Uranium are feasible in nuclear weapons, and uranium is not a waste product. Pu-239 is, but it has been shown that it can be used as nuclear fuel itself. It isn’t waste, it is unused fuel.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy - Buzzle
People need to reduce their use of electricity and develop products, renewable energy sources and buildings that provide the most efficient use of energy and raw materials. Nuclear energy is at best a short term solution. Nuclear energy is not ‘green’ nor renewable energy. Everything from the mining of the uranium, to the manufacturing process, to the unaswered question of what to do with the toxic nuclear waste that lasts for centuries is questionable and alarming. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Redistribute…….. It can be done. The question is…..do we have folks insightful and intelligent enough to do it????
Nuclear reactors used in nuclear energy can be used for various purposes, but most well-known of these is probably the production of electricity in a nuclear, power plant.
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Electric lighting burns up to 25% of the average home energy budget
5. Worldwide production of energyfrom fossil fuels in 1992 was 302.81 x 1015 Btu, whileenergy from nuclear reactors was 21.23 x 1015 Btu andfrom hydroelectric sources was 22.29 x 1015 Btu(Energy Information Administration, 1993:269). Biomass is thoughtto account for about 15% of the world's extrasomatic energy(WRI/IIED, 1988:111). Other sources of energy make only a minorcontribution (Corson, 1990:197). Thus, the total extrasomaticenergy used in the world must be on the order of 407.45 x1015 Btu per year. World population is taken as 5.555billion (CIA, 1993:422). The energy expended by an individual indoing a hard day's work is taken to be 4,000 Btu (Loftness1984:2, 756). Energy consumption in the United States is on theorder of 82.36 X 1015 Btu (Energy InformationAdministration, 1993:5). U.S. population is taken as 258 million(CIA, 1993:404).
Gramscian damage | Armed and Dangerous
The energy released by the fission that takes place in a nuclear reactor of the nuclear power plant is converted and generated into electricity.
Nuclear energy can also be used in industries for processing of various products by means of radiation.
Solar Energy Pros and Cons - Energy Informative
Above all else, the Industrial Revolution rode on the energy of hydrocarbon fuels. A very strong American, hauling water, can perform about one kilowatt-hour of work in a 10-hour day, and a typical American about half that. An electric pump could do the same work for less than 1/2000th of the worker’s wage cost. Not only could the Industrial Revolution’s energy technologies work far more cheaply than humans could, they could perform feats far beyond what muscle power could achieve. A slave-borne palanquin never attained a speed of 100 KPH, nor could it fly or travel to the moon. The energy of fossil fuels allowed for previously unimaginable feats of strength and speed, and materials and machines were created that would have such as plastics and electronic equipment. The relationship between energy use and economic output, measured in (“GDP”), is nearly linear, and . The is a typical example, as shown below. The near-linear relationship is primarily due to energy-driven machines performing work; market prices reflect the work used in the production of goods and services. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)
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