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Read this essay on Roles of Ancient Women
By the late nineteenth, early twentieth centuries, serious challenges to accepted beliefs about gender were mounted in both Japan and China. Although concerns about womens position had been expressed earlier, the concept of womens liberation became a major motivating force within the eras nationalist, reform, and revolution movements. Male nationalists initiated the discussion by arguing that an improvement in the status of women was essential to their countrys acceptance by other technologically advanced nations. A core of educated women in both Japan and China joined the call by speaking and writing in public for the first time. Conservative nationalists and traditionalists in Japan and China at different times reacted by mounting long campaigns against any change in gender roles. Ultimately female activists were labeled unseemly, unfeminine, and too western.
On the other hand, there were such goddesses as Artemis and Diana or Athena and Minerva, which apparently did not meet the standard view of a woman as a good wife and mother. In this respect, it should be said that, in spite of their seeming masculine image, they still were presented as goddesses who cannot compete with gods and they could not challenge the authority of Zeus. However, the existence of such goddesses in Greco-Roman pantheon can be explained by the rudimentary remnants in the religious beliefs of ancient Greeks and Romans of the epoch when females dominated in human society. In other words, such seemingly masculine images of Athena – Minerva, for instance, originated from the epoch when the role of women used to be primary compared to men, i.e. at the dawn of human civilization. But ancient Greeks and Romans adopted these goddesses to the new cultural environment, where males dominated and they depicted these goddesses as women that are brave and strong, but still dependant on males . For instance, on reading “The Odyssey”, it becomes obvious that Athena cannot help Odysseus without a good will or assistance of gods, such as Hermes, who informs Odysseus about the risk of being spelled into an animal, or Poseidon, who does not kill Odysseus but let him live, though he prevents Odysseus from returning home . In such a way, these goddesses showed women that they should be strong and be able to protect themselves, but still they could not succeed without the assistance of men. Therefore, ancient Greek and Roman women learned that, in spite of all their forces, they are still highly dependent on men.
The role of god in the ancient world Essay ..
25 July 2013.)
Worked in the home or village rarely outside of the home or village.
Didn't have any equal rights to men or hold any power.
They had no success out of the home unless they were of elite status.
My Discoveries of the Women from Ancient Mesopotamia
They worked in the home and sometimes along side their husbands in the fields.
The men and women were equal in this civilization.
They had little known success outside of the home but being fertile was successful to egyptian women.
My Discoveries of the Women from Ancient Egypt
How were the civilizations different?
Were the Gender roles for the women different or similar?
Were the women successful in their societies?
The films were interesting and informational.
The goal for a young Athenian woman was to get married. Most every woman would have a dowry. The amount was determined by her family's wealth, which varied drastically through the classes. The dowry helped to attract a suitable husband and was supposed to be used for the woman's maintenance. This didn't always happen and was sometimes squandered by the husband. The dowry was given by the father or her to the husband and could be taken back if the marriage did not work out. Every woman had a or male guardian. When she was born it would be her father. If he died, a male relative could take his place. After her marriage, her husband would become the . Any property or money she acquired through the death of a family member or through inheritance, became the property of her household, which was controlled by the . There is no evidence from Athens that women were ever allowed to become a . This meant that an Athenian woman could never have any real financial say in her life. Her dowry was in no legal sense her own, as it was given by her and she could not dispose of it herself. An Athenian woman could obtain a divorce, but only if her family and supported the decision. In that case, the dowry would be returned to her .
Greek and Roman Women in Ancient Times Essays
Any historical investigation into the lives of ancient women involves individual interpretation and much speculation. One can read the ancient sources concerned with women and their place in society, but to a large degree, they are all secondary sources that were written by men about women. No ancient journals or personal diaries written by Roman women were uncovered, so it is not known what their hopes and dreams were, or if they had any. What Roman women felt about most political issues and the numerous wars and upheavals is also a mystery. Nor can we read about what women thought of slavery, marriage, or the fact that they had no legal rights over their children or even themselves. The scope is truly limited, but many questions can still be asked and considered, such as: what was the role of Roman women in their society? Were they considered citizens who had personal freedoms, or were they sequestered away and given little or no education? Was individuality and personal choice a part of women's lives, or were they overshadowed by the patriarchal society of which they were a part? The answers may be difficult to uncover, but they are important questions to ask when one realizes that so much of Roman civilization went on to lay the foundation of our own modern society. Understanding the past makes the present that much clearer and hopefully provides insight into the future, thereby helping society not to make the same mistakes again.
When looking at the sources for ancient Roman women, it is quickly evident that most of them deal with the aristocracy. It was men from the upper classes who received the best education and the best positions in society, and this enabled them leisure time to reflect on their world and to write about it. As is the case with most people, they wrote about their own experiences and when it came to women, it was their own relatives and wives they wrote about. Certainly, aristocratic women and those from other upper levels of Roman society did not make up the majority of the female population, but it is pieces of their lives that we have to look at. Evidence for what poorer women suffered during the Roman Republic and the Empire is very fragmentary, however, women of all economic levels shared one overwhelming pervasive role and responsibility, no matter the social position they possessed: that of child bearer.
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Thr role of women in ancient times - WriteWork
So far in this essay, mammals have received scant attention, but the mammals’ development before the Cenozoic is important for understanding their rise to dominance. The , called , first , about 260 mya, and they had key mammalian characteristics. Their jaws and teeth were markedly different from those of other reptiles; their teeth were specialized for more thorough chewing, which extracts more energy from food, and that was likely a key aspect of success more than 100 million years later. Cynodonts also developed a secondary palate so that they could chew and breathe at the same time, which was more energy efficient. Cynodonts eventually ceased the reptilian practice of continually growing and shedding teeth, and their specialized and precisely fitted teeth rarely changed. Mammals replace their teeth a . Along with tooth changes, jawbones changed roles. Fewer and stronger bones anchored the jaw, which allowed for stronger jaw musculature and led to the mammalian (clench your teeth and you can feel your masseter muscle). Bones previously anchoring the jaw were no longer needed and . The jaw’s rearrangement led to the most auspicious proto-mammalian development: . Mammals had relatively large brains from the very beginning and it was probably initially . Mammals are the only animals with a , which eventually led to human intelligence. As dinosaurian dominance drove mammals to the margins, where they lived underground and emerged to feed at night, mammals needed improved senses to survive, and auditory and olfactory senses heightened, as did the mammalian sense of touch. Increased processing of stimuli required a larger brain, and . In humans, only livers use more energy than brains. Cynodonts also had , which suggest that they were warm-blooded. Soon after the Permian extinction, a cynodont appeared that may have ; it was another respiratory innovation that served it well in those low-oxygen times, functioning like pump gills in aquatic environments.
Role of Women in Ancient Roman Society ..
Many ancient Greeks saw the world through a system of binary opposites, such as free / slave or Greek / barbarian (foreigner). The categories into which a person was classed defined their status within the world, how they were regarded by others, and what they were entitled to do. The concept of gender was an integral aspect of this social hierarchy; power was not evenly distributed and only men were allowed to participate in prestige activities such as politics, law, or the military. Consequently, it was vital that men prove their masculinity, in order to prove their worth and to earn their place in the major social institutions, and that women exhibit qualities that would suit them for life in the home, on the farm, or in whatever role suited their class and family circumstances. Although men were generally regarded as superior to women, not all men were considered to have been made equal. As a result, they strove to compete in terms of manliness to assert their worth and to develop their prestige.
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