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and resulted in a mass extinction that led to the rise of reptiles.

As already discussed, for the previous Epochal Events (, , , ), what the event led to was to beings living before the event. But this time we have some hints, and shows such as are probably not all that fictional. My understanding is that a close cousin to its guides our ET visitors, and humans will not be allowed to become a space-faring species until we reach a level of maturity where ideas such as the Prime Directive become standard features of our culture. Although the idea of becoming a space-faring culture has plenty to capture the imagination, Brian and I were always most interested in the environmental, economic, political, and social changes that a “free energy revolution” could initiate.

Pylori and its Interactions with Humans in “An Endangered Species in the Stomach” by Martin J.

Since the most dramatic instances of speciation seem to have happened in the aftermath of mass extinctions, this essay will survey extinction first. A corollary to is that if any critical nutrient falls low enough, the nutrient deficiency will not only limit growth, but the organism will be stressed. If the nutrient level falls far enough, the organism will die. A human can generally survive between one and two months without food, ten days without water, and about three minutes without oxygen. For nearly all animals, all the food and water in the world are meaningless without oxygen. Some microbes can switch between aerobic respiration and fermentation, depending on the environment (which might be a very old talent), but complex life generally does not have that ability; nearly all aerobic complex life is oxygen dependent. The only exceptions are marine life which has adapted to . Birds can go where mammals cannot, , for instance, or being , due to their . If oxygen levels rise or fall very fast, many organisms will not be able to adapt, and will die.

One more problem and solution Essay

Endangered species are plants or animals expected to die off within a few years....

The (c. 299 to 252 mya) ended with the greatest mass extinction in the . The Carboniferous rainforests not only collapsed, but great deserts formed in the interior of the newly formed supercontinent of . Pangaea was a little , with huge ice sheets at the South Pole, but by the end of the Permian, and another ice age would not appear for more than 200 million years. The continent that became North America and Europe collided with Gondwana, and a gigantic mountain range formed as a result, called the . Those mountains created climatic effects, and great deserts formed on . Remnants of that range include the and part of the . The mountain range began forming during the creation of Pangaea, and the formed during the late Permian.

In the oceans, the Carboniferous is called the Golden Age of Sharks, and ray-finned fish arose to a ubiquity that they have yet to fully relinquish. Ray-finned fish probably prevailed because of their high energy efficiency. Their skeletons and scales were lighter than those of armored and lobe-finned fish, and their increasingly sophisticated and lightweight fins, their efficient tailfin method of propulsion, changes in their skulls, jaws, and new ways to use their lightweight and versatile equipment accompanied and probably led to the rise and subsequent success of ray-finned fish in the Carboniferous and afterward. , which are amoebic protists, rose to prominence for the first time in the Carboniferous. Reefs began to recover, although they did not recover to pre-Devonian conditions; those vast Devonian reefs have not been seen again. did not appear until the . Trilobites steadily declined and nautiloids familiar today, and straight shells became rare. The first , which were ancestral to squids and octopi, first appeared in the early Carboniferous, but some Devonian specimens might qualify. Ammonoids flourished once again, after barely surviving the Devonian Extinction. This essay is only focusing on certain prominent clades, and there are many and . The early Carboniferous, for example, is called the Golden Age of , which are a kind of , which is a phylum that includes starfish. The crinoids had their golden age when the fish that fed on them disappeared in the end-Devonian extinction. Earth’s ecosystems are vastly richer entities than this essay, or essay, can depict.

Problem Solution Essay- IELTS Writing Task 2 Lesson

This Act was to provide programs to protect species identified as either endangered or threatened.

Human-caused began with , which in turn drove their predators to extinction and had , particularly those resulting from the loss of . The so-called that scientists have been studying have been all human-induced, as humans eliminated predators, who were their energetic competitors. Driving the world's large animals to extinction was probably the impetus behind the Domestication Revolution, and .

During the , when ecosystems had their energy supplies disrupted, they collapsed and mass extinctions resulted. The oceanic were probably caused by anoxia, temperature change, , and other physical events. An asteroid "winter" helped . When that asteroid-induced global "winter" blocked sunlight, the ecosystems had an energy shortage at their base, as photosynthesis was interrupted, both on land and in water. That dinosaur-destroying asteroid also incinerated land-based ecosystems. It is doubtful that any pre-human mass extinction was caused by a disruption at the food chains' tops, but near their bases. Human-caused extinctions had different dynamics.

How have these species come to the point of becoming endangered or extinct.
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Problem & Solution Essay 4 – Thi Thử IELTS

In the 19th century, the Jurassic was called the Golden Age of Dinosaurs, but that moniker is arguably most applicable to the late Cretaceous, and it was a golden age clear up until a bolide impact brought it all to an end. One of the uglier disputes in paleontology’s history was a bent on outcompeting each other in finding and describing dinosaur fossils. However, the dinosaur extinction is probably the largest and most contentious controversy in the history of paleontology. Again, the , due to Lyell’s and Darwin’s prevailing uniformitarianism, until my lifetime. The hypothesized bolide event, , was a kind of a bolide event inflicted on paleontology. Acrimonious disputes ignited that still burn, but it made studying mass extinctions respectable. Initially attacked and dismissed, the bolide impact hypothesis is by far today’s leading hypothesis for explaining the . However, at the same time, India was speeding toward its Asian destiny, and its movement is associated with . Also, , so the bolide event has some theoretical competition as a causative agent.

Problem & Solution Essay 3; Problem & Solution Essay 1;

Shell-cracking . By the late Cretaceous, . went extinct after 150 million years of existence, and declined. Those apex predators preyed on and sharks and ray-finned fish always seemed to do well. Some appeared in the mid-Cretaceous that . The largest sea turtles yet recorded lived in the late Cretaceous, .

3 Ways to Help Endangered Animals - wikiHow

With the success of the end-Cretaceous bolide hypothesis, there was a movement in some circles to explain mass extinctions with bolide events, . If bolide events were responsible for all mass extinctions, then the , galactic explanation might still have relevance. Even though an end-Permian bolide event was unveiled with great fanfare and media attention in 2001, it does not appear to be a valid extinction hypothesis today, and invoking bolide impacts to explain mass extinction seems to have been a passing fad that has seen its best days. The oxygen hypothesis for explaining extinctions, evolutionary novelty, and radiations is similarly called a current fashion in some circles, and time will tell how the hypothesis fares, although it seems to have impressive explanatory value.

wiki How to Help Endangered Animals

When sea levels rise as dramatically as they did in the Cretaceous, coral reefs will be buried under rising waters and the ideal position, for both photosynthesis and oxygenation, is lost, and reefs can die, like burying a tree’s roots. About 125 mya, reefs made by , which thrived on , began to displace reefs made by stony corals. They may have prevailed because they could tolerate hot and saline waters better than stony corals could. About 116 mya, an , probably caused by volcanism, which temporarily halted rudist domination. But rudists flourished until the late Cretaceous, when they went extinct, perhaps due to changing climate, although there is also evidence that the rudists . Carbon dioxide levels steadily fell from the early Cretaceous until today, temperatures fell during the Cretaceous, and hot-climate organisms gradually became extinct during the Cretaceous. Around 93 mya, , perhaps caused by underwater volcanism, which again seems to have largely been confined to marine biomes. It was much more devastating than the previous one, and rudists were hit hard, although it was a more regional event. That event seems to have , and a family of . On land, , some of which seem to have , also went extinct. There had been a decline in sauropod and ornithischian diversity before that 93 mya extinction, but it subsequently rebounded. In the oceans, biomes beyond 60 degrees latitude were barely impacted, while those closer to the equator were devastated, which suggests that oceanic cooling was related. shows rising oxygen and declining carbon dioxide in the late Cretaceous, which reflected a general cooling trend that began in the mid-Cretaceous. Among the numerous hypotheses posited, late Cretaceous climate changes have been invoked for slowly driving dinosaurs to extinction, in the “they went out with a whimper, not a bang” scenario. However, it seems that dinosaurs did go out with a bang. A big one. Ammonoids seem to have been brought to the brink with nearly marine mass extinctions during their tenure on Earth, and it was no different with that late-Cretaceous extinction. Ammonoids recovered once again, and their lived in the late Cretaceous, but the end-Cretaceous extinction marked their final appearance as they went the way of and other iconic animals.

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