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Community vs. Problem-Oriented Policing

Beyond reasonable doubt, the core mission of the police department is controlling crime. Professional policing enjoys broad public support seeing that the primary strategy of policing embodies profound commitment to the objective of ensuring protection. Proposed policies should protect the public, and be problem-solving techniques that would not leave the individuals vulnerable to the criminal organization or victimization. It would be preferable that the alternative sought expresses commitment to the objective, demonstrating effectiveness, and dedication to achieving the goal. There have been arguments for the best method of providing the policing services. Proactive police enforcements and reactive police strategies are compared to categorize which approach is more effective. However, no matter the approach, there are the strengths and weaknesses of their application. Reactive and proactive police enforcement strategies have successes and failures expressed in tactics and the preventive effects in theory and practice.

The implications of these results for proactive policing are discussed.

8. Problem-Oriented Policing offers infinite specific hypothesesabout crime prevention, all under this umbrella claim: the more accuratelypolice can identify and minimize proximate causes of specific patternsof crime, the less crime there will be. In recent years this claim hastaken two major forms:

Table 8-8: Problem-Oriented Policing

o community policing with no clear crime-risk factor focus

These conclusions are based largely on research supported by the NationalInstitute of Justice, the research arm of the Office of Justice Programsin the U.S. Department of Justice. In recent years, increasing numbersof police executives have incorporated these findings into their crimeprevention strategies. University of Wisconsin law professor Herman Goldstein's(1979) paradigm of "problem-oriented policing" directed researchattention to the specific things police do, and how they can focus theirresources to attack the proximate causes of public safety problems. TheJustice Department's adoption of this perspective has yielded an increasinglycomplex but useful body of knowledge about how policing affects crime.

'That organisations use reactive, not proactive, continuity and security plans and do not appreciate the changed global context, risk, dependencies, staff, crisis and general environment in which they operate. As a consequence organisations are not properly prepared for operations. They need to be ‘Hardened’ in order to be successful.'

o community policing with community participation in priority setting

o community policing focused on improving police legitimacy

Police chiefs who are in charge of departments involved in community policing must consider everything from equal opportunity for their employees to the elimination of police corruption to the issues surrounding multiculturalism.

1993 Community Policing in Madison: Quality from the Inside Out. AnEvaluation of Implementation and Impact. Research Report. Washington, D.C.:National Institute of Justice.

o problem-oriented policing generally
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23-3-2015 · Problem oriented policing has ..

The hypotheses about community- and problem-oriented-policing are lessfocused than the others, so much so that some observers have even advisedagainst trying to test them (Moore 1992: 128). They both involve far morevariations and possible combinations of police activities than the narrowdeterrence hypotheses. As in the community- and school-based programs reviewedin chapters 2 and 4, community and problem-oriented policing are put intopractice more like a "stew" of different elements than a singletype of "food." Yet it is just this flexibility that proponentshypothesize to give them their power. Crime problems vary so widely innature and cause that effective policing for prevention must vary accordingly,and arguably require many elements to succeed.

Do the advantages of proactive policing outweigh the disadvantages

7.a. Neighborhood Watch. This hypothesis justifies one of themost widespread community policing programs, "block watch": increasingvolunteer surveillance of residential neighborhoods by residents, whichshould deter crime because offenders know the neighbors are watching.

Problem Oriented Policing Essay Examples - New York essay

7.d. Police Legitimacy. Given the historical roots of communitypolicing, perhaps the most theoretically compelling version of its crimeprevention hypothesis addresses police legitimacy, or public confidencein the police as fair and equitable (Eck and Rosenbaum, 1994). Recent theoreticaland basic research work in "procedural justice" (Tyler, 1990)provides a more scientifically elaborate version of this hypothesis thanits proponents in the 1960s intended. The claim is not just that policemust be viewed as legitimate in order to win public cooperation with lawenforcement. The claim is that a legitimate police institution fostersmore widespread obedience of the law itself. Gorer (1955: 296) even attributesthe low levels of violent crime in England to the example of law-abidingmasculinity set by 19th Century police, a role model that became incorporatedinto the "English character." There is even evidence that thepolice themselves become less likely to obey the law after they have becomedisillusioned with its apparent lack of procedural justice (Sherman, 1974).

Page 2 Problem Oriented Policing Essay

Police chiefs in the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) told NIJthat they did not think citizens in their own communities would take solong to call the police. NIJ responded by commissioning PERF to replicatethe citizen reporting component of the response time analysis in four othercities. Over 4,000 interviews about 3,300 "involvement" crimesproduced unequivocal support for the findings of the Kansas City responsetime analysis (Spelman and Brown, 1981). The probability of arrest in thoseserious crimes was only 29 per 1,000 reports, with 75% of serious crimesbeing discovered by victims long after the crimes occurred. Of the 25%that directly involved the victims, almost half were reported five minutesor more after the crime was completed. The findings were consistent acrosscities, including one that had a 911 system and three that did not.

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