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History of mental retardation: An essay ..
In 1828, Horace Mann, an educational reformer, put forward a philosophy of public welfare that called for making the “insane” wards of the state. This philosophy was widely put into effect, and each state assumed responsibility for those with mental illness in that state. States often built their psychiatric hospitals in rural areas. Moral treatment and compassionate care were the main approach at this time, but with rapid urbanization and increased immigration, the state mental health systems began to be overwhelmed. Many elderly people who in rural areas would have been cared for at home could no longer be cared for when their families moved into the cities. Women, as well as men, frequently worked away from home, and there was no one to care for the elderly or see to their safety. Many people with brain-based dementias, probably caused by Alzheimer’s or small strokes, became patients in mental institutions for the remainder of their lives. The institutions also had many cases of people in the last stages of syphilis. Many of those suffering from mental retardation, epilepsy, and alcohol abuse were also committed to the institutions; in hard economic times, the number of people admitted to the institutions increased.
Although the word "stroke" usually conjures images of paralysis, aphasia and apraxia, strokes may also cause cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems, including bizarre mental syndromes.
Discover the signs and symptoms of mental retardation.
Studdert et al. describe recent efforts by the federal government and professional organizations to tighten the regulation of financial associations between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry. Payments to doctors (including gifts and consulting fees) by drug companies are violations of the federal anti-kickback law if the payments have the potential to increase the recipients' prescriptions for the companies' products. The Office of the Inspector General, the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, and physicians' organizations have issued guidelines prohibiting many types of financial relationships that have been common.
Although many psychotherapists are aware of the possibility that underlying physical conditions can cause or exacerbate emotional issues, the reality is that a majority of mental health practitioners spend most of their time treating uncomfortable feelings or social problems – not mental disorders, much less medical problems. As a result, they can easily miss the signs that might lead them to recommend a professional medical diagnosis.
professional essay on Americans and Mental Retardation
In the developed brain, there are two essential types of cells – neurons and glia. (The word is derived from the Greek word for glue). Although we usually think of neuron problems when we look at mental disorders, 90 percent of brain cells are glial cells; only 10 percent are neurons. Unlike many neurons, glial cells are able to divide and reproduce rapidly. Glial cells surround neurons and hold them in place, supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons, insulate one neuron from another, and remove dead neurons.
The function of astrocytes is to supply neurons with energy, meaning a low astrocyte level would cause lower activity in the associated neurons. Sodium valproate is a sodium salt of valproic acid used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and a mood stabilizer. Valproic acid protects dopaminergic neurons in midbrain neuron and glia cultures by stimulating the release of neurotrophic factors from astrocytes.
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Prevention of mental retardation essay : Essays in politics
The Environmental Protection Agency has pressured companies to discontinue the use of PFOA, because of evidence of low birth-weight and reproductive health problems. The substance also causes liver damage, thyroid disorders, immune disorders, and cancer, all of which can present initially as mental disorders.
Mental Health: Cause and Prevention of Mental Disorder
The long-term implications are even more serious. Researcher Michael Skinner has found that when pregnant rats were exposed to a pesticide at a certain time, four generations of their descendants inherited the damage and diseases caused by the toxin, even if it did not involve a genetic mutation. Although this was an animal study, Skinner believes that this can also occur in humans. This is considered as an epigenetic reason that a mental illness could be found in multiple family members.
Prevention of mental retardation essay
Mold spores are present in all indoor environments. In most cases, these molds do not cause illness, but exposure to molds and their associated mycotoxins in water-damaged buildings can cause a multitude of health problems, including disorders in the central nervous system and immune system, both of which cause mental disorders.
The Arc | For People with Intellectual and …
An interesting study of 29,074 the female spouses of private pesticide applicators indicated that, although the women did not apply pesticides, they were often exposed to them because they lived on the farm and sometimes helped prepare the pesticide. This population had a high level of major depression, often requiring medication.
Good food is a basic need of human body
There is a troubling phenomenon afoot in the United States. Most psychotropic drugs are now prescribed by physicians and nurse practitioners, not psychiatrists. Even worse, a New England Research Institute study of antidepressant found that 43 percent of people who have been prescribed antidepressants had no psychiatric diagnosis, no assessment, nor any mental health care beyond the prescription of the drug. These medications are usually prescribed by family physicians, often given usually at the request of the patient who had seen the drug on a television advertisement.
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