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LA Youth » Essay contest: What has changed your life?
However, for this Epochal Event, unlike the others, we actually have hints of what might lie ahead, and . One set of noteworthy visions comes from Michael Roads's , which is particularly inspiring and enlightening. Roads visited two future human realities, about 300 years into our future. They were on opposite ends of the fear/love spectrum. Both were technologically advanced compared to today and both had genetic engineering, but the made Los Angeles seem like , while a Disney movie could not begin to depict the . Visions such as those make it clear to me that our future will be what make it. What we choose to do, , determines what our tomorrow looks like. The fear-based world that Roads visited was filled with victims, from top to bottom. Those in that heavenly world all acted like true creators, and creators create with love. , and learning that lesson be the reason why we are here, playing this life-on-Earth game.
The primary advantage that mitochondria provided was not only increased surface area for reactions, but unlike other organelles that began as bacteria (such as ), mitochondria retained some of their DNA. That DNA was probably retained by mitochondria that could make key proteins vital to their functioning on the spot, instead of waiting for the nucleus to send DNA “instructions.” Essentially, mitochondria provided flexible power generation, like a field commander empowered to make decisions far from headquarters and quickly responding to conditions on the ground. Mitochondria move around inside the cells and provide energy where it is needed. That flexibility of decentralized power generation may be the mitochondrion’s chief contribution to making complex life possible, and that in turn led to many changes that are characteristic of complex life, some of which follow.
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But the branch of the that readers might find most interesting led to humans. Humans are in the phylum, and the last common ancestor that founded the Chordata phylum is still a mystery and understandably a source of controversy. Was our ancestor a ? A ? Peter Ward made the case, as have others for a long time, that it was the sea squirt, also called a tunicate, which in its larval stage resembles a fish. The nerve cord in most bilaterally symmetric animals runs below the belly, not above it, and a sea squirt that never grew up may have been our direct ancestor. Adult tunicates are also highly adapted to extracting oxygen from water, even too much so, with only about 10% of today’s available oxygen extracted in tunicate respiration. It may mean that tunicates adapted to low oxygen conditions early on. Ward’s respiration hypothesis, which makes the case that adapting to low oxygen conditions was an evolutionary spur for animals, will repeatedly reappear in this essay, as will . Ward’s hypothesis may be proven wrong or will not have the key influence that he attributes to it, but it also has plenty going for it. The idea that fluctuating oxygen levels impacted animal evolution has been gaining support in recent years, particularly in light of recent reconstructions of oxygen levels in the eon of complex life, called and , which have yielded broadly similar results, but their variances mean that much more work needs to be performed before on the can be done, if it ever can be. Ward’s basic hypotheses is that when oxygen levels are high, ecosystems are diverse and life is an easy proposition; when oxygen levels are low, animals adapted to high oxygen levels go extinct and the survivors are adapted to low oxygen with body plan changes, and their adaptations helped them dominate after the extinctions. The has a pretty wide range of potential error, particularly in the early years, and it also tracked atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The challenges to the validity of a model based on data with such a wide range of error are understandable. But some broad trends are unmistakable, as it is with other models, some of which are generally declining carbon dioxide levels, some huge oxygen spikes, and the generally relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which a geochemist would expect. The high carbon dioxide level during the Cambrian, of at least 4,000 PPM (the "RCO2" in the below graphic is a ratio of the calculated CO2 levels to today's levels), is what scientists think made the times so hot. (Permission: Peter Ward, June 2014)
As will be explored in this essay, all of the marine life have anoxia as a suspected contributing cause, so oxygen is a major area of interest among extinction specialists. Whether oxygen levels were also significant contributing causes of evolutionary innovation is another area of interest today. Again, to food chains. Even if the first animals did not respire anaerobically, they adapted to aerobic respiration early on and then became dependent on it. There would be no going back for animals; all except those few adapted to and anoxic environments went “all in” with aerobic respiration.
positive change in my life essay » #1 - Free Online …
However, all that scientists have determined so far for DNA's function is providing the “blueprint” for making proteins. Proteins have , and the science of studies the highly complex way that genes express themselves. DNA provides the foundation for life’s structures, and as with , the FOXP2 gene is highly conserved in humans, which means that it does not change. Similar to , those genes form the foundation of the biological structures built from them, and if the foundation is damaged, the resulting house will be defective. Epigenetics and other factors are important, but if the foundation is sufficiently flawed, the house may not stand at all.
has been a prominent hypothesis that posited that behaviorally modern humans suddenly appeared. It was once considered an abrupt event that began about 50-40 kya, but as new archeological finds are amassed, as well as recent advances in genetic research and other areas, the story is familiar. Although on the geological timescale the event was abrupt, radical, and unprecedented in life’s history on Earth, the “ramping” period seems to have lasted longer than initially thought. A likelier story is that in East Africa, which conforms to a . inherited culture and tools from their ancestors and continued along the path of inventing more complex technologies and techniques, exploiting new biomes, and reaching new levels of cognition. There does not seem to be any or development that needs to invoke divine or extraterrestrial intervention to explain the appearance and rise of . Some migrated past their African homeland during the of 130 kya to 114 kya and brought along their technology. Although they may have disappeared and perhaps became Neanderthal prey, vestiges of their fate are probably yet to be discovered. They may have contributed to the biological and technological wealth of Eurasian humans and may have begun to drive vulnerable species to extinction with their new tools and techniques. However, Africa remained the crucible of primate biological and technological innovation, as it almost always had to that time. By 70-60 kya, isolated African humans reached a level of sophistication called behavioral modernity. Art was in evidence, needles made clothes and other sophisticated possessions, and they mastered language, which was probably a unique trait among land animals. They made tools of a sophistication far advanced over other humans, which probably included projectile weapons that radically changed the terms of engagement with prey animals, predators, and other humans.
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IELTS Cue Card Sample 33 - A positive change in your life
Key events in the popular story of Jesus's life, such as the virgin birth and resurrection, were already circulating in other religions of the day. There is little evidence that Muhammad existed, and if he did, he probably lived around Jerusalem, not on the Arabian Peninsula. After a career of archeological investigation in the region where the Biblical Israel was founded, one anthropologist likened the Hebrew Bible to propaganda with tiny bits of historical truth in it, as facts are needed to help people swallow fanciful stories. To modern observers not under the , tales of people living to be nearly a thousand (), or more than 40,000 years () are not taken seriously. But literalist interpretations of ancient texts abound, whether they come from religious fundamentalists or scholars such as and who tried to explain mythical events as if ancient texts depicted literal truth. Promoting is a major component of how modern populations are controlled.
Essay on positive change in my life - …
The rest of this chapter will trace many important preindustrial developments which helped set the stage for the Industrial Revolution, which is humanity’s fourth and most recent Epochal Event. But until the last few centuries in Europe preceding the Industrial Revolution, the basics among all civilizations did not appreciably change. Agriculture provided a local and stable energy supply that allowed for sedentism, forests were removed to make way for crops, and domestic animals were used to provide labor and/or flesh products, while their manure helped replenish soil nutrients depleted by agriculture. Virtually everywhere that agriculture appeared, so did civilization, with varying levels of urbanity. Elites dominated all civilizations, and they almost always invoked either a divine nature or divine sanction to justify their status, and they always engaged in conspicuous economic consumption. Cities situated on low-energy transportation lanes, which were almost always bodies of water, exploited forested and agricultural hinterlands, which were worked by peasants and slaves, while cities housed professionals and the elite. Forests and agriculture provided the primary energy supply of all preindustrial civilizations, which was usually supplemented with the products and services of domestic animals. All preindustrial civilizations were steeply hierarchical - economically, socially, and politically – and the means of production provided small surpluses that supported a small elite and professional class. Fighting over resources and plunder has been the primary predilection of all civilizations for all time, except for a very brief interlude at the beginnings of .
Essay contest: What has changed your life
One enduring question about civilization is “Why?” Why would somebody leave a village for a shortened life expectancy in a city? Ever since the ancient Greeks and , that question has been asked. There are two basic theoretical camps: one is integration theory, and the other is conflict theory. Integration theories have people moving to civilization because of the attendant benefits, which are obviously many. , of which was a proponent, have elites exploiting civilizations in service of greedy and vain motivations. Academics have written that integration theories account best for providing life’s necessities for the masses, which is why they migrate to civilizations, and conflict theories best explain elite appropriation of economic surpluses.
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