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6 This leads to another cause for The Hundred Years' War.

Critics of the war might offer a different set of goals: (1) beyond thanking veterans, to discuss whether the war itself was necessary or honorable; (2) in regard to the Armed Forces, to examine the debilitating effects of U.S. aerial assaults, ground operations, and counterinsurgency doctrine, especially on civilians; (3) on the home front, to recognize the contributions of those who opposed the war as patriotic and honorable; (4) with respect to science and technology, to examine the environmental and human devastation wrought by high-tech weaponry and poisons such as Agent Orange, and to reassess the slavish dependence on statistical benchmarks that obscured the inhumanity of the war; and (5) to recognize that America’s most important allies did not support the war and that the United Nations and other nations strongly advised against it. Such goals would likely produce sobering lessons that would strengthen efforts to prevent future wars.

essay about The Hundred Years War fought by England and France

The Hundred Years War, caused by the English king's claim to the French throne, a search for national identity and economic rivalry changed forever the emerging nations of England and France in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. In the beginning of the conflict, the English overpowered the French with better weaponry and a stronger government, but were later defeated as France gained a sense of national spirit behind its new hero, Joan of Arc.

History Of The The Hundred Years War History Essay

France and England fought each other for more than a hundred years to have control of the Channel trade routes.
This century of warring was known as and is the longest war in record history.

It began in 1337 when King Edward ... III claimed that he himself was deserving of the throne because his mother was the sister of the late French king, while Philip VI was only a cousin.

The Actual Cause Of The Hundred Years War - UK Essays

I believe, however, that the focus on the centuries after 1500 obscures the importance of the period in which the most dramatic, most truly revolutionary changes in European military affairs took place: the period, roughly, of the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453). The armies that dominated the battlefields of Europe from the mid-eleventh century through the early fourteenth were composed primarily of feudal warrior-aristocrats, who owed military service for lands held in fief.9 They served as heavily armored cavalry, shock combatants, relying on the muscle power of man and steed, applied directly to the point of a lance or the edge of a sword.10 They fought more often to capture than to kill. The armies which conquered Europe’s first global empires, on the other hand, differed from this description on every single count. They were drawn from the common population (albeit often led by aristocrats); they served for pay; they fought primarily on foot, in close-order linear formations which relied more on missile fire than shock action; and they fought to kill.11 The tremendous revolution in warfare represented by these changes was well underway by the middle of the Hundred Years’ War, and solidly in place by the end of that conflict.

The beginning of the Hundred Years War was dominated by the English because of their longbow, a government that was stronger and more centralized, support from Burgundy, and rebellions that were plaguing France. The first battle of the war resulted in an English victory at the Bay of Sluys in 1340, followed by the battle of Crécy that had the same result in 1346. The war lulled for a few years because of the Black Death. Upon its resumption in 1356, the English defeated the French in the Battle of Potiers and forced them to agree to the Peace of Brétingy in 1360, which declared an end to Edward III's vassalage to John II, secured his rule over English continental land holdings, and organized the ransom for the captured John II in exchange for Edward III's renounce of his claim to the French throne. In the same year, Edward III died and was succeeded by Richard II, a widely disliked man. The reign of Richard II brought England the same trouble with rebellions that France had faced earlier and marked the beginning of a turning point in the war.

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The Actual Cause Of The Hundred Years War

The implicit encouragement in Warren's article, and in others like it, was to be daring, even pitiless, in attacking problems of an anatomical nature. As the 18th-century surgeon William Hunter had told his students, “Anatomy is the Basis of Surgery, it informs the Head, guides the hand, and familiarizes the heart to a kind of necessary inhumanity.” That first volume of the Journal provided descriptions of a remarkable range of surgical techniques, including those for removing kidney, bladder, and urethral stones; dilating the male urethra when strictured by the passage of stones; tying off aneurysms of the iliac artery and infrarenal aorta; treating burns; and using leeches for bloodletting. There were articles on the problem of “the ulcerated uterus” and on the management of gunshot and cannonball wounds, not to mention a spirited debate on whether the wind of a passing cannonball alone was sufficient to cause serious soft-tissue injury.

The Hundred Years War and War of the Roses - New York essay

The general consensus among American historians is that the American War in Vietnam was a “mistake,” although interpretations differ as to what exactly this means. This essay takes the view that the ‘mistake” was a product of U.S. global ambitions and misperceptions that developed in the aftermath of World War II and were compounded over time. It probes deeply into the origins and nature of the war, making it a long article for a website (about 70,000 words), with about one-third devoted to the antiwar movement at home (Part IV). A half-century of excellent scholarship on the Vietnam War is drawn together and frequently cited in this essay.

The Hundred Years War - Essay by Alexghui - Anti Essays

Thus, a six-foot longbow which at a twenty-eight-inch draw had the same draw weight as a four-foot-eight-inch bow, would have a substantially higher draw weight at its full thirty-two-inch draw, and would in total store about half again more energy than the shorter bow at the shorter draw. It seems reasonable to hypothesize that this increase could make the difference between ineffectiveness and lethality when attempting to penetrate an enemy’s armor. Even arrows fired from the strong shortbows of the Moslems in the Crusades of the late twelfth century proved rather ineffective against European armor.35 In contrast, a later medieval writer held that “the most important thing in the world, for battles, is the archers.”36 Of course, the draw weight increased with draw distance, so the longbow required a very strong archer to use it effectively.37 Archaeological evidence shows that some medieval archers used longbows with draw weights up to 180 lbs., and the average was probably around 100.38 England developed a pool of strong yeomen archers over decades of more-or-less constant warfare against the Scots and the Welsh-it is no coincidence that Cheshire archers, considered the best in England, came from the Welsh marches.39 The French, despite numerous attempts, never succeeded in producing a comparable body of skilled archers.40 Indeed, one could argue that France failed to join in on the Infantry Revolution until the late fifteenth century, and that many of her military failures prior to the advent of the Artillery Revolution in the mid-fifteenth century could be ascribed to that fact.

Causes Of The Hundred Years War Free Essays - …

Trump is wary of expertise. During the campaign, he expressed his distrust of scientists, military strategists, university professors, diplomats, and intelligence officers. He filled the executive branch accordingly, appointing a climate-change denier as the head of the Environmental Protection Agency; a Secretary of Education who, during her confirmation hearing, displayed stunning ignorance of public education; an Energy Secretary who previously called for closing the Department of Energy; a United Nations Ambassador whose international experience is limited to trade missions for the state of South Carolina; and a national-security adviser who trafficked in Islamophobic conspiracy theories until, three weeks into the job, he was forced to resign because he lied to Vice-President Pence about his ties to the Russian government.

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