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Essay about italian culture and food
In his last article on the Soviet cinema in the Dwight Macdonald points out that kitsch has in thelast ten years become the dominant culture in Soviet Russia. Forthis he blames the political regime -- not only for the fact thatkitsch is the official culture, but also that it is actually thedominant, most popular culture, and he quotes the following fromKurt London's : ". . . the attitudeof the masses both to the old and new art styles probably remainsessentially dependent on the nature of the education affordedthem by their respective states." Macdonald goes on to say:"Why after all should ignorant peasants prefer Repin (a leadingexponent of Russian academic kitsch in painting) to Picasso, whoseabstract technique is at least as relevant to their own primitivefolk art as is the former's realistic style? No, if the massescrowd into the Tretyakov (Moscow's museum of contemporary Russianart: kitsch), it is largely because they have been conditionedto shun 'formalism' and to admire 'socialist realism.'"
In the Middle Ages the plastic artist paid lip service at leastto the lowest common denominators of experience. This even remainedtrue to some extent until the seventeenth century. There was availablefor imitation a universally valid conceptual reality, whose orderthe artist could not tamper with. The subject matter of art wasprescribed by those who commissioned works of art, which werenot created, as in bourgeois society, on speculation. Preciselybecause his content was determined in advance, the artist wasfree to concentrate on his medium. He needed not to be philosopher,or visionary, but simply artificer. As long as there was generalagreement as to what were the worthiest subjects for art, theartist was relieved of the necessity to be original and inventivein his "matter" and could devote all his energy to formalproblems. For him the medium became, privately, professionally,the content of his art, even as his medium is today the publiccontent of the abstract painter's art -- with that difference,however, that the medieval artist had to suppress his professionalpreoccupation in public -- had always to suppress and subordinatethe personal and professional in the finished, official work ofart. If, as an ordinary member of the Christian community, hefelt some personal emotion about his subject matter, this onlycontributed to the enrichment of the work's public meaning. Onlywith the Renaissance do the inflections of the personal becomelegitimate, still to be kept, however, within the limits of thesimply and universally recognizable. And only with Rembrandt do"lonely" artists begin to appear, lonely in their art.
Italian Culture: Facts, Customs & Traditions
Sadly, the European Commission and the central Italian government continue to support many so-called "development" projects in Sicily, few of which result in little more than untaxed wealth for the projects' managers. Indeed, the phenomenon has spawned an entire industry as politicians and their friends scramble to propose projects with grossly inflated budgets. In the 1980s, a new profession, that of the , was born. The term refers to the "project consultant" who seeks European Commission funds on behalf of a town, association or governmental agency (presumably one lacking personnel competent to know how to manage public money efficiently, as though that were an esoteric art), and then spends these monies, taking a large commission for himself and his cohorts. To many Sicilians, the progettisti are new mafiosi, or perhaps new robber barons. Considering the vast investments involved, the tangible results are precious few, apart from expensive vacation homes for the project administrators themselves. One can only conclude that Sicilian progettisti, Mafia proponents or Sicilian politicians have in some way infiltrated or corrupted elements of the European Commission in Brussels. It's a long way from stealing cattle in the mountains.
It is a platitude that art becomes caviar to the general whenthe reality it imitates no longer corresponds even roughly tothe reality recognized by the general. Even then, however, theresentment the common man may feel is silenced by the awe in whichhe stands of the patrons of this art. Only when he becomes dissatisfiedwith the social order they administer does he begin to criticizetheir culture. Then the plebian finds courage for the first timeto voice his opinions openly. Every man, from the Tammany aldermanto the Austrian house-painter, finds that he is entitled to hisopinion. Most often this resentment toward culture is to be foundwhere the dissatisfaction with society is a reactionary dissatisfactionwhich expresses itself in revivalism and puritanism, and latestof all, in fascism. Here revolvers and torches begin to be mentionedin the same breath as culture. In the name of godliness or theblood's health, in the name of simple ways and solid virtues,the statue-smashing commences.
Italian Culture essay on Essay Tree
In a stable society that functions well enough to hold in solutionthe contradictions between its classes, the cultural dichotomybecomes somewhat blurred. The axioms of the few are shared bythe many; the latter believe superstitiously what the former believesoberly. And at such moments in history the masses are able tofeel wonder and admiration for the culture, on no matter how higha plane, of its masters. This applies at least to plastic culture,which is accessible to all.
On the other side of the ocean, several Italian-American culturalorganisations decry the persistent cinematic image as nothing less than bigotry, citing the (accurate) statistic that fewer than one percent of Italo-Americans are in the Mafia. A few of these organisations,echoing the official position held by the FBI until the 1970s, denied the veryexistence of the Mafia until it was mentioned in criminal cases in federal courts in the 1980s. Until then, anti-defamationlobbying garnered some isolated and unexpected results; it was strange, forinstance, to hear references to "the syndicate" in American telefilmswhen everybody knew from context that the teleplays' characters were referring to the Mafia, which American mafiosi usually referred to as "our thing" or "our business." Sicilians laugh at the charming Italo-American myth that "the Mafia doesn't exist," but they also enjoy and
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Italian Culture Analytical Essay 9378 - AcaDemon
If the avant-garde imitates the processes of art, kitsch, wenow see, imitates its effects. The neatness of this antithesisis more than contrived; it corresponds to and defines the tremendousinterval that separates from each other two such simultaneouscultural phenomena as the avant-garde and kitsch. This interval,too great to be closed by all the infinite gradations of popularized"modernism" and "modernistic" kitsch, correspondsin turn to a social interval, a social interval that has alwaysexisted in formal culture, as elsewhere in civilized society,and whose two termini converge and diverge in fixed relation tothe increasing or decreasing stability of the given society. Therehas always been on one side the minority of the powerful -- andtherefore the cultivated -- and on the other the great mass ofthe exploited and poor -- and therefore the ignorant. Formal culturehas always belonged to the first, while the last have had to contentthemselves with folk or rudimentary culture, or kitsch.
Italy Research Papers on Italian Culture and History
All values are human values, relative values, in art as wellas elsewhere. Yet there does seem to have been more or less ofa general agreement among the cultivated of mankind over the agesas to what is good art and what bad. Taste has varied, but notbeyond certain limits; contemporary connoisseurs agree with theeighteenth-century Japanese that Hokusai was one of the greatestartists of his time; we even agree with the ancient Egyptiansthat Third and Fourth Dynasty art was the most worthy of beingselected as their paragon by those who came after. We may havecome to prefer Giotto to Raphael, but we still do not deny thatRaphael was one of the best painters of his time. There has beenan agreement then, and this agreement rests, I believe, on a fairlyconstant distinction made between those values only to be foundin art and the values which can be found elsewhere. Kitsch, byvirtue of a rationalized technique that draws on science and industry,has erased this distinction in practice.
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I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access toone. (Take a moment to appreciate how much that means. The hackerculture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive thatindividuals could not own them.) The single most important step anynewbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy ofLinux or one of the BSD-Unixes, install it on a personal machine, andrun it.
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