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A Global Food Crisis - Photo Essays - TIME
The anatomy of habilines (members of ) spoke volumes about their lives. They had brains of about 640 ccs, with an estimated range of 600 to 700 ccs, nearly 50% larger than their australopithecine ancestors and nearly twice that of chimps, and the artifacts they left behind denoted advanced cognitive abilities. They stood about 1.5 meters tall (five feet), and weighed around 50 kilograms (120 pounds). With the first appearance of habilines about 2.3 mya, Oldowan culture spread widely in East Africa and also radiated to South Africa. Habiline skeletal adaptations to tree climbing meant that they slept there at night, just as their ancestral line did. Their teeth were large, which meant that they heavily chewed their food. Habiline sites have large rock hammers that they pounded food on, to break bones and crack nuts. Those habiline stone hammers may well have also been used to soften meat, roots, and other foods before eating them. Sleeping in trees meant that habilines were preyed on, mostly by big cats. Today, the leopard is the only regular predator of chimpanzees and gorillas, and at times. But if modern studies of chimpanzees are relevant, our ancestors engaged in warfare for the past several million years, and , so simian intra-species mass killings may have tens of millions of years of heritage. Habilines were not only wary of predators, but also of members of their own species.
Perhaps the most damaging deficiency in FE efforts, after self-serving orientation, was that the participants and their supporters were scientifically illiterate and easily led astray by the latest spectacle. Scientific literacy can help prevent most such distractions. While writing this essay, I was not only bombarded with news of the latest FE and alternative energy aspirants' antics, but I had to continually field queries regarding whether Peak Oil and Global Warming were conspiratorial elite hoaxes (or figments of the hyperactive imaginations of environmentalists and other activists), for two examples that readily come to mind. Digesting this essay's material should have those questions answered as mere side-effects. Far from being a hoax or imaginary, Peak Oil was and , and it is all downhill from there, and conventional oil will be almost entirely depleted in my lifetime. , although both were heavily promoted in the USA in 2014. In every paleoclimate study that I have seen, so-called greenhouse gases have always been considered the primary determinant of Earth's surface temperature (after the Sun), and carbon dioxide is chief among them. The radiation-trapping properties of carbon dioxide are not controversial in the slightest among scientists, and after the Sun's influence (which is exceedingly stable), declining carbon dioxide levels are considered to be the conditions that have dominated Earth for the past 35 million years. Humanity's increasing the atmosphere's carbon dioxide content is influencing the cause of Icehouse Earth, and , and are merely proximate causes. Increasing carbon dioxide can turn the global climate from an to a Greenhouse Earth, and the last time that happened, Earth had its . But have purposefully confused the issues, and a scientifically illiterate public and have played along, partly because believing the disinformation seems to relieve us all of any responsibility for our actions. Although scientific literacy can help people become immune to the disinformation and confusion arising from many corners, and reading this essay's first half can help people develop their own defense from such distractions, my goals for this essay's first half are far greater than that.
Essay on World Food Crisis (with diagrams and tables)
Several different fusion processes have been identified, and stars from about half the size of the Sun to about nine times larger can undergo a process known as late in their lives, and that process has created about half of the elements heavier than iron; is the heaviest element created by the process. Those heavier elements are eventually blown from the star by its stellar wind as it becomes a white dwarf. Stars with more than nine times the mass of the Sun undergo a different process at the end of their lives. When the hydrogen and helium fuel is used up and the fusion processes in those stars’ cores are reduced low enough, gravity will cause those stars to collapse in on themselves. That collapse creates the pressures needed to fuse those other atoms heavier than iron, including the heaviest elements. Uranium is the heaviest naturally produced element. In an instant, . Depending on a composition, it can collapse into a black hole or neutron star or explode into a supernova.
The accretion disk from which the Sun and its planets were formed appeared in a relatively short time, and the disk was originally a molecular cloud that may have been disturbed by an exploding star. A "local" exploding star likely provided the bulk of our solar system's matter, and the entire mess gravitationally collapsed into the disk. Earth’s age is estimated to be about , and formed fewer than 100 million years after the Sun did. In a after formation, the Sun became compressed enough to initiate the sustained fusion that still powers it and will for several billion more years.
Food Crisis Essay Examples - New York essay
Among herbivores, their mode of digestion was important. attained the , and elephants, rhinos, and horses have that digestive process. Cattle, camels, deer, giraffes, and many other herbivorous mammals are foregut fermenters and many are , which have four-chambered stomachs, while the others . While foregut fermenters are more energy efficient, hindgut fermenters can ingest more food. Hindgut fermenters gain an advantage when forage is of low quality. What they . There are drawbacks to that advantage, however, such as when there is not much forage or its quality is poor, such as dead vegetation. A cow, for instance, digests as much as 75% of the protein that it eats, while a horse digests around 25%. Live grass contains about four times the protein as dead grass. Cattle can subsist on the dead grass of droughts or hard winters and horses cannot, which was a tradeoff in pastoral societies.
So far in this essay, mammals have received scant attention, but the mammals’ development before the Cenozoic is important for understanding their rise to dominance. The , called , first , about 260 mya, and they had key mammalian characteristics. Their jaws and teeth were markedly different from those of other reptiles; their teeth were specialized for more thorough chewing, which extracts more energy from food, and that was likely a key aspect of success more than 100 million years later. Cynodonts also developed a secondary palate so that they could chew and breathe at the same time, which was more energy efficient. Cynodonts eventually ceased the reptilian practice of continually growing and shedding teeth, and their specialized and precisely fitted teeth rarely changed. Mammals replace their teeth a . Along with tooth changes, jawbones changed roles. Fewer and stronger bones anchored the jaw, which allowed for stronger jaw musculature and led to the mammalian (clench your teeth and you can feel your masseter muscle). Bones previously anchoring the jaw were no longer needed and . The jaw’s rearrangement led to the most auspicious proto-mammalian development: . Mammals had relatively large brains from the very beginning and it was probably initially . Mammals are the only animals with a , which eventually led to human intelligence. As dinosaurian dominance drove mammals to the margins, where they lived underground and emerged to feed at night, mammals needed improved senses to survive, and auditory and olfactory senses heightened, as did the mammalian sense of touch. Increased processing of stimuli required a larger brain, and . In humans, only livers use more energy than brains. Cynodonts also had , which suggest that they were warm-blooded. Soon after the Permian extinction, a cynodont appeared that may have ; it was another respiratory innovation that served it well in those low-oxygen times, functioning like pump gills in aquatic environments.
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Essay On Food Crisis/Food Insecurity (Plz Check & …
At this juncture, I will ask my readers to perform an exercise that I first saw described by Peak Oil advocate , which is to lay aside data and graphs and just think about how energy makes everything in our daily lives possible. Think about your food, water, mode of transportation, and materials that comprise your home and possessions, and think of the role that energy played in providing them. Think about the energy that you use each day in powering your home and in your transportation, even if it is just walking. Then imagine running out of energy. When you flipped on a light switch, nothing happened. When you turned on the tap, no water came out. Your refrigerator stopped working, food deliveries to your community ceased, and no electricity, oil, gas, coal, or even wind or water power was available. Everything in your life would come to a sudden halt. When people have tried to demote energy below spirituality, social relations, or even made it irrelevant to economics, my question is for them to see what they can forego the longest: prayer/meditation, social interaction, sex, or energy. The fossil fuels burned to power industrial civilization provide several hundred energy slaves for each American and no less than hundreds per person in every industrialized nation. All that those energy-leveraged humans do is direct the energy, like holding the reins of a gigantic beast that each person rides each day. Airline pilots half-joke that they begin their workday by strapping jet airliners to their waists. Without that energy to direct in the myriad ways that industrialized humans use it, modern civilization would come to an abrupt end.
10/10/2011 · Essay On Food Crisis/Food ..
said that if oil were priced by the benefit that humans received, every barrel should cost $1 million. But because it takes relatively little human effort to obtain oil, it sells for only about $100 per barrel today (and $50 in early 2015, as another is collapsing). Similarly, the Sun’s energy powers the , without which there would not be land-based life. If humans had to desalinate water instead of rely on the Sun for the energy to provide fresh water, and humanity did not have an energy source such as fossil fuels, humans would quickly go extinct. But because nature provides the water that humans use and nobody pays for it (a concept that is eroding, as corporations are busy ), neoclassical economists ignore the critical economic benefits provided by the hydrological cycle. Homogenizing everything with market prices and then creating differential calculus analytics is not helpful for understanding how the world really works. Neoclassical economists have tried to divorce energy consumption from economic production, but such analyses only have seeming validity if the way that the world actually works is ignored. American food production takes nearly 20% of the USA’s energy use, and more than 10 calories of fossil fuels are burned to provide every calorie of food eaten. The concept of diminishing returns and energy consumption applies to national economies. Poorer nations receive a relatively large benefit for incremental energy use, while the industrialized nations do not get as great a proportional increase. But statistics such as worker productivity in the USA had a tight linear relationship with energy use for 80 years, from 1905 to 1984, when the Reagan administration ceased collecting the data.
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