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The Oxford English Dictionary defines figure of speech as "a word or phrase used in a non-literal sense for rhetorical or vivid effect." Figures of speech add interest and meaning to the way a person speaks....

Works CitedBieswanger, Markus und Becker Annette (2010) Introduction to English linguistics.

The texts localized in LALME provide an excellent starting point for the enquiry, as they can be related to the geographical map. However, it should be admitted from the outset that they do not form a representative sample of all surviving Late Middle English texts, which also include a large number of texts in non-localizable language varieties, be they standardised, colourless or geographically mixed (for the concept of 'colourless language', cf. [1988: 86]). At a later stage they will need to be supplemented by other texts.

Language and Linguistics Chinese Master s Programme SlidePlayer

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Argues that interlanguage is both a valid and a useful construct in understanding second language acquisition and in providing an important basis for testing linguistic theory.

The programme is of interest to those who wish to continue to a research degree in English language or linguistics, those who wish to become teachers or lecturers of English, or those intending to pursue a career in writing, publishing, or editing.

The linguist and the English language Online Library eBooks Read

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Table 1. The distribution of texts in relation to some key extralinguistic variables. The figures are based on a provisional classification that still needs much revision. Not all texts have yet been classified for each variable, and thus the total figures vary.

Thorogood is a native of the state of Delaware and, according to a 2003 dialect survey conducted by the Harvard University Linguistics Department, the state’s residents are not known to use the Appalachian dialect.

Speech errors as a linguistic phenomenon has been the topic of many linguistic researches.
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It can be investigated as an evidence for linguistic change as well.

These two lemmas — a PDE one and an etymological one — should between them define by far most of the linguistic forms entered. There still remains the question of short-lived words that neither go back to OE nor survive up to PDE times. For a maximal power of identification, it might be argued that the database should also include a ME reference point, perhaps based on the (henceforth MED). There are, however, problems involved here. A third reference point (combined with the spelling unit analysis described below) would add a considerable amount of extra time to the process of entering data into the database; the gain would therefore need to be substantial in order to justify the .

Keywords: linguistics language acquisition theory.

Defining the etymology of a linguistic form requires two pieces of information. Firstly, the immediate source language (OE, OF, ON, L) is defined in a separate field. Words with obscure etymologies are entered as 'ME'. For Old English words, the headword is that found in the Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by Bosworth and Toller (); for all other etymologies, the headword is the first cited form of the source language given in the OED entry.


Many African American students speak a variation of Standard English (Black Vernacular Speech) whose linguistic patterns sometimes conflict with those of Standard English....


The PDE headword alone will permit a wide range of searches. Among other things, it should make possible a systematic comparison of PDE and ME spelling conventions; it should also make it possible, through the interpretation of written forms, to elicit information about phonological changes and spoken dialectal patterns in the late- and post-medieval periods. However, another reference point back in time is needed in order to trace etymological patterns, study the earlier linguistic developments and simply to define words that may have become obsolete at an early stage.


In order to be able to trace the history of linguistic forms and to capture as many of them as possible in searches, we need reference points going both back and forward in time. For the present-day reference point, the obvious source is the . For all words recorded after 1800, it will be straightforward to use the OED headword as a PDE lemma. Words that became obsolete before 1800 pose a problem, however: their most recent headwords may not conform to the usual PDE spelling conventions, and might obscure searches based on PDE orthography. This can be solved by adding an extra field which labels the forms as either current or obsolete.

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