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Child labor is a harrowing experience for anyone involved in it.

Children are getting affected physically, mentally, socially, and morally due to this unacceptable crime “Child Labour”. It has targeted many countries in the form of undeveloped economic structure which has resulted in poverty, illiteracy, high population, corruption, unemployment, criminal activities, etc.

They narrated that when child works as a Child Labour he/she actually supports the family.



The difficult life they are living and ignorance of these farm labour is responsible for such type of their attitude towards their own children.

All over the world children are laboring for little or no money.

The novels of Charles Dickens, the most popular author of the Victorian era, also reveal an intense concern about the vulnerability of children. When Dickens was twelve, his father was imprisoned for debt and he was sent to work in a blacking factory, an incident that haunted him his whole life. His novels are full of neglected, exploited, or abused children: the orphaned Oliver Twist, the crippled Tiny Tim, the stunted Smike, and doomed tykes like Paul Dombey and Little Nell. Like Barrett Browning, Dickens was galvanized by revelations of real-life horrors facing the poor. Oliver Twist (1837) was written in response to the draconian New Poor Law of 1834, which had been inspired by the theories of utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham. This law relegated the needy to prison-like institutions called workhouses, splitting up families and subjecting them to repugnant living conditions and hard labor.

The Act came at a time when reformers like Richard Oastler were publicising the terrible working conditions of children, comparing the plight of child labourers to that of slaves.

Another company that works against child labor is UNICEF.

Similarly, in creating the pathetic character of Jo the street-sweeper in Bleak House (1852-3), Dickens was inspired by the testimony of a real child laborer interviewed in an 1850 law report. Both boys admit, under questioning, that no one has ever bothered to teach them anything, not even the shortest prayer. Jo’s dramatic death scene enables Dickens to fulminate on the fate of such forlorn waifs:

This thesis focuses on the economics of child labour and child education within developing
and developed countries.
The first part of the thesis examines child labour and child education in developing countries.
It investigates the motivations of parents to send their children to work and analyses
the so-called commitment problem of child labour in a dynamic, overlapping generations game
theoretical model. As a novelty, this model relaxes the requirement of an observable history
of play and models the decision problem as an overlapping generations cyclic game. We show
that first-best contracts may me implemented, implying optimal child education and low child
labour, if a bequest sanction can be imposed by grandparents. We also discuss the special role
that grandparents have within this model.
The second part of the thesis analyses the economics of child education within a developed
country context: the transmission of education across generations and the impact of a schooling
reform on educational choice and later outcomes. In a first chapter of this second part, we
examine specifically the influence of grandparents, as postulated by the model in part one, on
the education of grandchildren. A unique dataset on three generations, the National Child
Development Survey of the UK, is used. As a special feature, we apply recent econometric
techniques to deal with censoring in a semi-parametric setting. The results indicate that it is
not education but rather unobservable factors on the parent and grandparent level that affect
the educational choice of grandchildren. These unobservable factors may be interpreted as
innate ability or parenting skills. In a second chapter within this part, a schooling reform,
the introduction of comprehensive schools in the UK and its impact on educational and labour
market outcomes is evaluated. We find, using data from the National Child Development Survey
and applying a new, quasi-differenced matching estimator, that bias corrected estimates of the
reform suggest no effect on the means, but a sizeable effect on the variance of outcomes. We
interpret this finding as indicative of a higher risk inherent to the selective education system.
In summary the thesis sheds some new light on the economics of education and child
labour, both in a theoretical and an empirical context, and provides a valuable reference and
starting point for future research in this area.

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But we need more campaigns to end child labor.

Thus, although legislation aimed at regulating and reducing child labor was passed throughout the century, there was no attempt to outlaw it completely. Loopholes in laws like the 1833 Factory Act and the 1867 Workshops Act, coupled with a lack of local enforcement, meant that many children continued to work. As late as 1891, over 100,000 girls between the ages of 10 and 14 were still employed as domestic servants in England and Wales. That same year, the British government dragged its feet at raising the minimum age for part-time factory work from 10 to 11, even though they had promised to extend it to 12 at an 1890 European congress on child labor.

Child labour is the employment of children as wage earners.

This thesis focuses on the economics of child labour and child education within developing
and developed countries.
The first part of the thesis examines child labour and child education in developing countries.
It investigates the motivations of parents to send their children to work and analyses
the so-called commitment problem of child labour in a dynamic, overlapping generations game
theoretical model. As a novelty, this model relaxes the requirement of an observable history
of play and models the decision problem as an overlapping generations cyclic game. We show
that first-best contracts may me implemented, implying optimal child education and low child
labour, if a bequest sanction can be imposed by grandparents. We also discuss the special role
that grandparents have within this model.
The second part of the thesis analyses the economics of child education within a developed
country context: the transmission of education across generations and the impact of a schooling
reform on educational choice and later outcomes. In a first chapter of this second part, we
examine specifically the influence of grandparents, as postulated by the model in part one, on
the education of grandchildren. A unique dataset on three generations, the National Child
Development Survey of the UK, is used. As a special feature, we apply recent econometric
techniques to deal with censoring in a semi-parametric setting. The results indicate that it is
not education but rather unobservable factors on the parent and grandparent level that affect
the educational choice of grandchildren. These unobservable factors may be interpreted as
innate ability or parenting skills. In a second chapter within this part, a schooling reform,
the introduction of comprehensive schools in the UK and its impact on educational and labour
market outcomes is evaluated. We find, using data from the National Child Development Survey
and applying a new, quasi-differenced matching estimator, that bias corrected estimates of the
reform suggest no effect on the means, but a sizeable effect on the variance of outcomes. We
interpret this finding as indicative of a higher risk inherent to the selective education system.
In summary the thesis sheds some new light on the economics of education and child
labour, both in a theoretical and an empirical context, and provides a valuable reference and
starting point for future research in this area.

Child Labour, its Causes, Consequences and Laws

The Foulball campaign generated almost immediate publicity, thousands of soccer players from both the United States and Europe requested that child labor was to be eliminated from soccer ball manufacturing.

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