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Body essay perversion politics space time; Recent Posts.
There are relatively few literary landmarks before the twentieth century in which physical pain figures prominently. Though the representation of physical pain is also rare in nineteenth-century Russian literature, in several works of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, physical pain plays a surprisingly vital role. Whereas In War and Peace and The Death of Ivan Ilyich, pain is tied to the revelation of truth, in Dostoevsky's Notes from the House it is much more linked, as in Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Dante, with the problem of justice. But Dostoevsky ranges much further in his portrayal of power, exploring the links between pain and class, pain and power, and pain and humiliation. He also does not confine himself to the victims of pain, the recipients of corporal punishment, he shows as much interest in its perpetrators. Nor does he present the narrator, Alexander Petrovich Goryanchikov, as an objective observer. The narrator sometimes imagines himself a victim, however, as a member of the ruling classes, he, too, is implicated in that terrible practice of inflicting pain-- corporal punishment -- that he presents as endangering the moral fiber of the nation.
In Puente Bulnes, in Santiago de Chile, photographers Claudio Pérez and Rodrigo Gómez constructed a Wall of Memory, using photographic portraits of 936 detained-disappeared people printed on ceramic tiles. Among these images, they included blank tiles that correspond to portraits that they were unable to find. The monument is located in a public space, amidst the tumult and noise of the street, overlapping with urban experiences from the present. In this sense, as Nelly Richard says, the isolation that results from the choice of a remote, separate place is avoided—as is the case for the memorial to the detained-disappeared in Santiago's General Cemetery, where there are even empty niches reserved, waiting to be occupied by the remains of the disappeared that have not as yet been identified. The void in the Puente Bulnes is not a material representation, but a symbolic one (Richard 2001).
Body essay perversion politics space time;
Even though the gender that one was erotically attracted to (at anyspecific time, given the assumption that persons will likely beattracted to persons of both sexes) was not important, other issueswere salient, such as whether one exercised moderation. Status concernswere also of the highest importance. Given that only free men had fullstatus, women and male slaves were not problematic sexual partners. Sexbetween freemen, however, was problematic for status. The centraldistinction in ancient Greek sexual relations was between taking anactive or insertive role, versus a passive or penetrated one. Thepassive role was acceptable only for inferiors, such as women, slaves,or male youths who were not yet citizens. Hence the cultural ideal of asame-sex relationship was between an older man, probably in his 20's or30's, known as the erastes, and a boy whose beard had not yetbegun to grow, the eromenos or paidika. In thisrelationship there was courtship ritual, involving gifts (such as arooster), and other norms. The erastes had to show that he hadnobler interests in the boy, rather than a purely sexual concern. Theboy was not to submit too easily, and if pursued by more than one man,was to show discretion and pick the more noble one. There is alsoevidence that penetration was often avoided by having theerastes face his beloved and place his penis between thethighs of the eromenos, which is known as intercrural sex. Therelationship was to be temporary and should end upon the boy reachingadulthood (Dover, 1989). To continue in a submissive role even whileone should be an equal citizen was considered troubling, although therecertainly were many adult male same-sex relationships that were notedand not strongly stigmatized. While the passive role was thus seen asproblematic, to be attracted to men was often taken as a sign ofmasculinity. Greek gods, such as Zeus, had stories of same-sex exploitsattributed to them, as did other key figures in Greek myth andliterature, such as Achilles and Hercules. Plato, in theSymposium, argues for an army to be comprised of same-sexlovers. Thebes did form such a regiment, the Sacred Band of Thebes,formed of 500 soldiers. They were renowned in the ancient world fortheir valor in battle.
Exactly what attitude the New Testament has towards sexuality ingeneral, and same-sex attraction in particular, is a matter of sharpdebate. John Boswell argues, in his fascinating Christianity,Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality, that many passages takentoday as condemnations of homosexuality are more concerned withprostitution, or where same-sex acts are described as“unnatural” the meaning is more akin to ‘out of theordinary’ rather than as immoral (Boswell, 1980, ch.4; see alsoBoswell, 1994). Yet others have criticized, sometimes persuasively,Boswell's scholarship (see Greenberg, 1988, ch.5). What is clear,however, is that while condemnation of same-sex attraction is marginalto the Gospels and only an intermittent focus in the rest of the NewTestament, early Christian church fathers were much more outspoken. Intheir writings there is a horror at any sort of sex, but in a fewgenerations these views eased, in part due no doubt to practicalconcerns of recruiting converts. By the fourth and fifth centuries themainstream Christian view allowed for procreative sex.
space time and perversion essays on the politics of ..
The third and final problem for the gay liberationist approach wasthat it often took this category of ‘identity’ itself asunproblematic and unhistorical. Such a view, however, largely becauseof arguments developed within poststructuralism, seemed increasinglyuntenable. The key figure in the attack upon identity as ahistoricalis Michel Foucault. In a series of works he set out to analyze thehistory of sexuality from ancient Greece to the modern era (1980,1985, 1986). Although the project was tragically cut short by hisdeath in 1984, from complications arising from AIDS, Foucaultarticulated how profoundly understandings of sexuality can vary acrosstime and space, and his arguments have proven very influential in gayand lesbian theorizing in general, and queer theory in particular(Spargo, 1999; Stychin, 2005).
At the outset of this essay, I inquired about what reasons there might be for linking art in its most contemporary productions to politics. The critical strength of these images lies in their exploration of new ways of saying the same thing, but also in upsetting standardized parameters of representation and putting them into motion in order to broaden their previous scene of communication and expand the universe of awareness on the basis of different devices of representation. The photographs used by human rights organizations created a standardized image carried as a support of identification and as proof that the lives they reclaim and commemorate are still pending. The effect of their translation into the art field connects them with that power of the incomplete that art connects us to. This involves, as Nelly Richard put it, the "more than that" and the "never completely" aspects of art. Art's always incomplete nature combines with the always pending nature of social and political demands. These repeated images circulate in contexts that were not foreseen in the repertoire from which they came. They operate in a strategic role, unsheathed from their original environment, now active and in movement. In art, a space of non-determination is opened up, a space for escape. To change a people's consciousness regarding the past of the dictatorship is not a task that art can take on as its own, nor as a specific one. Nevertheless, this change requires all kinds of interventions and actions that might multiply the uniqueness of one face or of one motto that is always the same. Above and beyond the personal and poetic reasons associated with each group of works, these images have contributed to the ongoing reactivation of what every image related to the disappeared purports to achieve: that they appear, alive; and that those responsible are brought to trial and punished for their crimes.
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Space, Time and Perversion: The Politics of Bodies
The everyday faces seen in the memorials are activated in a recent series of drawings by Daniel Ontiveros, Rasgos (Features 2010), which reproduce photos published in the Memorials. They reproduce not just one image in particular, with which he may have a certain familiarity or close connection, but the entire group of photographs that register and remember people, including those who are close to Ontiveros' generation. It is not the first time that his work refers to the disappeared. Ay patria mía! (O Fatherland of Mine! 1994), an installation where the Madres de Plaza de Mayo's kerchiefs are arranged in the form of daisies, refers through its title to independence leader General Manuel Belgrano's final words (Buntinx 1998) . The calligraphy, flowers, and "tidiness" with which the compiled material is organized recall a school project. However, a closer look reveals the names and dates inscribed on the kerchiefs. Delving into this information produces a contrast similar to the meanings unleashed when faces of the disappeared and soccer cleats in pursuit of a ball share the same page. It is a sensation of awe that represents the flip-side of the official account of events, that of heroes, which, through the Punto Final and Obendiencia Debida (Full Stop and Due Obedience) laws and the ten decrees of pardon sanctioned by ex-President Carlos Saúl Menem, attempted to silence this parallel history at the moment when Ontiveros produced this work.
I don't own my child's body - CNN
Other figures played important roles in the development of naturallaw theory. Aristotle, with his emphasis upon reason as the distinctivehuman function, and the Stoics, with their emphasis upon human beingsas a part of the natural order of the cosmos, both helped to shape thenatural law perspective which says that “True law is right reasonin agreement with nature,” as Cicero put it. Aristotle, in hisapproach, did allow for change to occur according to nature, andtherefore the way that natural law is embodied could itself change withtime, which was an idea Aquinas later incorporated into his own naturallaw theory. Aristotle did not write extensively about sexual issues,since he was less concerned with the appetites than Plato. Probably thebest reconstruction of his views places him in mainstream Greek societyas outlined above; the main issue is that of active versus a passiverole, with only the latter problematic for those who either are or willbecome citizens. Zeno, the founder of Stoicism, was, according to hiscontemporaries, only attracted to men, and his thought had noprohibitions against same-sex sexuality. In contrast, Cicero, a laterStoic, was dismissive about sexuality in general, with some harsherremarks towards same-sex pursuits (Cicero, 1966, 407-415).
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