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Student Essay - Who is Your Hero? - Stage of Life
Until the 20th century, people had no idea how their activities impacted a portion of their environment that may end up hastening humanity’s demise more than self-made deserts: the atmosphere. Agriculture and civilization meant deforestation, and there is compelling evidence that the Domestication Revolution began altering the composition of Earth’s atmosphere from its earliest days. The natural trend of carbon dioxide decline was reversed beginning about 6000 BCE. Instead of declining from about 260 PPM at 6000 BCE to about 240 PPM today, which would have been the natural trend, it began rising and reached 275 PPM by about 3000 BCE. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were about 40 PPM higher than the natural trend would suggest. When a forest is razed and the resultant wood is burned, which is usually wood’s ultimate fate in civilizations, it liberated carbon that the tree absorbed from the atmosphere during . , and human activities began measurably adding methane to the atmosphere by about 3000 BCE, which coincided with the rise of the rice paddy system in China. In nature, methane is primarily produced by decaying vegetation in wetlands, both in the tropics and the Arctic, and human activities have increased wetlands even as they made other regions arid. Domestic grazing animals and human digestive systems also contribute to methane production. Atmospheric alteration by human activities has only come to public awareness in my lifetime, but human activities have had a measurable effect on greenhouse gases since the beginnings of civilization, even though the effects were modest compared to what has happened during the Industrial Revolution, as humans burn Earth’s hydrocarbon deposits with abandon.
Here is a brief summary of this essay. Ever since more than three billion years ago and about a billion years after the Sun and Earth formed, organisms have continually invented more effective methods to acquire, preserve, and use energy. after three billion years of evolution and, pound-for-pound, it used energy . The story of life on Earth has been one of , and in turn influencing them. During the eon of complex life that began more than 500 million years ago, there have been many brief for some fortunate species, soon followed by increased energy competition, a relatively stable struggle for energy, and then cleared biomes and set the stage for another golden age by organisms adapted to the new environments. Those newly dominant organisms were often marginal or unremarkable members of their ecosystems before the mass extinction. That pattern has characterized the journey of complex life over the past several hundred million years. among some animals, which provided them with a competitive advantage.
Who in your life has been your biggest influence and …
Bonobos are the only non-human African great ape exception to infanticide, and are also the only great ape species that does not sexually coerce females, humans included. The reason seems to be the social organization that arose from a plentiful food supply that allowed for larger groups in which females males actively reduced male violence. Many behaviors within and between bonobo bands are unknown with chimps. A male bonobo will remain with his mother for her entire life, and male bonobos do not vie for dominance. Instead, bonobos have a sexuality that no other animal on Earth has remotely approached. They settle nearly everything with sex. Female on female is common, particularly when bands meet, but , with the sole exception of mothers and sons, as the aversion to inbreeding is rooted deeply in animals and is also responsible for the human incest taboo. Bonobo societies are and seem to live by the slogan, “Make love, not war.” But it started with their economy, when their primary and dominant competitor moved away. In recent studies, the only bonobo sexual coercive acts observed are females abusing males, which is also rare. A likely influence on ending infanticide is that female bonobos, like humans, conceal their ovulation, so males are not cued to compete to be the father. Also, since virtually all bonobos have sex all the time, there is no way for bonobos to determine paternity.
Studies of warfare have shown that absolute population density has little influence on how warlike societies are. However, the proper way to analyze population density and conflict is probably not in absolute terms, but relative terms. Hunter-gatherer bands slaughtered each other over access to resources such as waterholes, stone quarries, and salt deposits. Ancient states of the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean fought over access to forests, arable lands, and low-energy transportation lanes (usually waterways), and no informed observer thinks that the , after and helping to bankrupt its own economy by hosting a huge military presence in that region, if the USA was sitting atop enough high- oil to power its economy for centuries. It is the abundance of resources that supports a people’s means of production that largely determines how warlike they are going to be. Scarcity leads to violence, whether it is a or history’s richest and most powerful nation invading peoples half a planet away to steal their energy resources.
College Admission Essay My Biggest Influence
The Triassic began hot and ended hot, and the Jurassic and Cretaceous were also hot, so staying warm was not a significant issue for dinosaurs. stayed cool by becoming aquatic, and for land-based dinosaurs, features such as plates apparently replaced the sails of for both heating and cooling, and like the synapsid sail, those plates may have also been used for display. Also, like the cliché, many large herbivorous dinosaurs lived near cooling swamps, although the issue has been controversial. Cooling swamps and protective water holes that we see in the tropics today were a major aspect of Mesozoic landscapes. But the thermoregulatory aspect that most work is directed toward today is how dinosaurs kept warm. There is compelling evidence that dinosaurs regulated their body temperature in myriad ways, including internal chemistry. All bipedal animals today are endotherms and they all have four-chambered hearts, as dinosaurs did. , dinosaurs living near the poles (, ), and of dinosaur bones all support the idea that , but one of the more intriguing areas is that of . Like tree rings, bones have seasonal growth rings and they have been read for many dinosaur fossils. They have been used to determine dinosaurian life expectancies. could live to be about 30, giant could live to be 50, and smaller dinosaurs, as with smaller mammals, lived shorter lives. The tiny ones only lived three-to-four years and the mid-sized ones lived seven-to-fifteen years. Growth rates also provide thermoregulation evidence. Tyrannosaurs had juvenile growth spurts and largely stopped growing as adults, and sauropods had growth rates equivalent to today’s whales, which are Earth’s fastest growing animals. But there is also evidence of ectothermic dynamics. The great size of dinosaurs would have led to relatively easy ways to stay warm, as large animals have a greater mass-to-surface area ratio, like the way in which . Also, in the generally hot Mesozoic times, staying warm would have been fairly easy, particularly for huge dinosaurs.
The ecosystems may not have recovered from Olson’s Extinction of 270 mya, and at 260 mya came another mass extinction that is called the mid-Permian or extinction, or the , although a recent study found only one extinction event, in the mid-Capitanian. In the 1990s, the extinction was thought to result from falling sea levels. But the first of the two huge volcanic events coincided with the event, in . There can be several deadly outcomes of major volcanic events. As with an , massive volcanic events can block sunlight with the ash and create wintry conditions in the middle of summer. That alone can cause catastrophic conditions for life, but that is only one potential outcome of volcanism. What probably had far greater impact were the gases belched into the air. As oxygen levels crashed in the late Permian, there was also a huge carbon dioxide spike, as shown by , and the late-Permian volcanism is the near-unanimous choice as the primary reason. That would have helped create super-greenhouse conditions that perhaps came right on the heels of the volcanic winter. Not only would carbon dioxide vent from the mantle, as with all volcanism, but the late-Permian volcanism occurred beneath Ediacaran and Cambrian hydrocarbon deposits, which burned them and spewed even more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Not only that, great salt deposits from the Cambrian Period were also burned via the volcanism, which created hydrochloric acid clouds. Volcanoes also spew sulfur, which reacts with oxygen and water to form . The oceans around the volcanoes would have become acidic, and that fire-and-brimstone brew would have also showered the land. Not only that, but the warming initiated by the initial carbon dioxide spike could have then warmed up the oceans enough so that methane hydrates were liberated and create even more global warming. Such global warming apparently warmed the poles, which not only melted away the last ice caps and ended an ice age that had , but deciduous forests are in evidence at high latitudes. A 100-million-year Icehouse Earth period ended and a 200-million-year Greenhouse Earth period began, but the transition appears to have been chaotic, with wild swings in greenhouse gas levels and global temperatures. Warming the poles would have lessened the heat differential between the equator and poles and further diminished the lazy Panthalassic currents. The landlocked Paleo-Tethys and Tethys oceans, and perhaps even the Panthalassic Ocean, may have all become superheated and anoxic as the currents died. Huge also happened, which may have and led to ultraviolet light damage to land plants and animals. That was all on top of the oxygen crash. With the current state of research, all of the above events may have happened, in the greatest confluence of life-hostile conditions during the eon of complex life. A recent study suggests that the extinction event that ended the Permian may have lasted only 60,000 years or so. In 2001, a bolide event was proposed for the Permian extinction with great fanfare, but it does not appear to be related to the Permian extinction; the other dynamics would have been quite sufficient. The Permian extinction was the greatest catastrophe that Earth’s life experienced since the previous supercontinent existed in the .
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The Biggest Influence in My Life | EB Info World
Could this essay's first half be considered an indulgence of my childhood fascination with nature? That argument could have merit, but I have always been a "big picture" kind of thinker, even as a teenager. I am writing this essay primarily to help manifest FE technology in the public sphere and help remedy the deficiencies in all previous attempts that I was part of, witnessed, heard of, or read about. The biggest problem, by far, was that those trying to bring FE technology to the public had virtually no support from the very public that they sought to help. My journey's most important lesson was that , and an egocentric humanity living in scarcity and fear is almost effortlessly manipulated by the social managers. John Q. Public is only interested in FE technology to the extent that he can immediately profit from it. Otherwise, he goes back to watching his favorite TV show. It took many years of disillusionment for that to finally become clear to me. While this essay and all of my writings are provided for free to humanity and anybody can read them, I intend to only reach a very tiny fraction of humanity with my writings, but that tiny fraction will be sufficient for my plan to succeed. The readers that I seek have a formidable task ahead of them, but nothing less is required for my approach to have any hope of bearing fruit. This essay and my other writings are intended as a course in (also called "big picture") thinking. Studying the details deeply enough to avoid misleading superficial understandings is also a key goal. I am an accountant by profession, but one of the world's leading paleobiologists surprisingly read an early draft of this essay and informed me that it was one of the best efforts that he ever saw on the journey of life on Earth. There was nobody on Earth whose opinion I would have respected more than his, so I do not think that I am asking readers of this essay's first half to humor me. Every sentient being on Earth should know the rudiments of what this essay's first half covers.
The biggest influence in my life is my ..
Perhaps the most damaging deficiency in FE efforts, after self-serving orientation, was that the participants and their supporters were scientifically illiterate and easily led astray by the latest spectacle. Scientific literacy can help prevent most such distractions. While writing this essay, I was not only bombarded with news of the latest FE and alternative energy aspirants' antics, but I had to continually field queries regarding whether Peak Oil and Global Warming were conspiratorial elite hoaxes (or figments of the hyperactive imaginations of environmentalists and other activists), for two examples that readily come to mind. Digesting this essay's material should have those questions answered as mere side-effects. Far from being a hoax or imaginary, Peak Oil was and , and it is all downhill from there, and conventional oil will be almost entirely depleted in my lifetime. , although both were heavily promoted in the USA in 2014. In every paleoclimate study that I have seen, so-called greenhouse gases have always been considered the primary determinant of Earth's surface temperature (after the Sun), and carbon dioxide is chief among them. The radiation-trapping properties of carbon dioxide are not controversial in the slightest among scientists, and after the Sun's influence (which is exceedingly stable), declining carbon dioxide levels are considered to be the conditions that have dominated Earth for the past 35 million years. Humanity's increasing the atmosphere's carbon dioxide content is influencing the cause of Icehouse Earth, and , and are merely proximate causes. Increasing carbon dioxide can turn the global climate from an to a Greenhouse Earth, and the last time that happened, Earth had its . But have purposefully confused the issues, and a scientifically illiterate public and have played along, partly because believing the disinformation seems to relieve us all of any responsibility for our actions. Although scientific literacy can help people become immune to the disinformation and confusion arising from many corners, and reading this essay's first half can help people develop their own defense from such distractions, my goals for this essay's first half are far greater than that.
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