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What human-agency skeptics have ignored or argued around are unique features of the megafauna that went extinct the humans that preyed on them, while they examined minutia. ever before humans arrived. As , African elephants help create the biomes they live in, as terraforming agents. They were far from idle browsers and grazers, but had outsized impacts on the vegetation, soils, and geological features such as water holes. Dinosaurs may have had similar biome impacts, and it was probably a feature of that large herbivore guild. Scientists have been finding plenty of evidence that vegetation changes that human-agency skeptics attribute to climate change may well be largely the of the guild’s disappearance, not a cause. Researchers in Africa have also discovered that changes wrought by elephants created biomes dependent on elephant management. When elephants disappeared, so did the biomes that they created, which is why smaller species could also disappear when the large herbivore guild vanished. Although Australia was the only non-Antarctic continent without proboscideans 50 kya, and its guilds were comprised of somewhat smaller animals, probably reflecting inherent differences between placental and marsupial mammals, Australia's large herbivores probably had similar biome impacts.
A water molecule containing (the most common oxygen isotope) will be lighter than a water molecule containing (both are stable isotopes), so it takes less energy to evaporate an oxygen-16 water molecule than an oxygen-18 water molecule. Also, after evaporation, oxygen-18 water will tend to fall back to Earth more quickly than oxygen-16 water will, because it is heavier. As a consequence, air over Earth’s poles will be enriched in oxygen-16 – the colder Earth’s surface temperature, the less oxygen-18 will evaporate and be carried to the poles – and . Also, the oxygen-isotope ratio in fossil shellfish (as their life processes prefer the lighter oxygen isotope) has been used to help determine ancient temperatures. During an ice age, because proportionally more oxygen-16 is retained in ice sheets and does not flow back to the oceans, the ocean’s surface becomes enriched in oxygen-18 and that difference can be discerned in fossil shells. Sediments are usually laid down in annual layers, and in some places, such as the off of Venezuela's coast, undisturbed sediments have been retrieved and analyzed, which has helped determine when ice sheets advanced and retreated during the present ice age.
A Level Politics Essay Help — 673885 — MINK
The first five books of the Bible, called the , are considered by today’s scholars to have been a political tract written centuries after the alleged events occurred. It was like the taught to today’s schoolchildren as a way to cultivate blind obedience to the state. Early Israel and Judah were tiny kingdoms in the hills, sandwiched between Assyria and Egypt, which were warring regional powers. Israel was destroyed about 722 BCE after the Israeli king defied the Assyrian king, and ten of Israel’s tribes were forcibly relocated by Assyria and became lost to history. The Assyrians forcibly relocated more than four million people. Those “lost tribes” became the focus of for millennia. Writing the Pentateuch was an understandable effort to help Israelites survive, as a kind of nationalistic parable. The New Testament and Koran were also written long after the alleged events, accompanied by huge political battles over what the official story would be. Whatever divine inspiration Jesus may have had access to, ("" (AKA "") is perhaps the most enlightened message ever given to humanity), or other figures in Judeo-Christian or Islamic tales, what certain is that priesthoods and rulers shamelessly distorted them to serve their agendas of amassing and maintaining wealth and power, in a pattern that and lasts to this day.
Key events in the popular story of Jesus's life, such as the virgin birth and resurrection, were already circulating in other religions of the day. There is little evidence that Muhammad existed, and if he did, he probably lived around Jerusalem, not on the Arabian Peninsula. After a career of archeological investigation in the region where the Biblical Israel was founded, one anthropologist likened the Hebrew Bible to propaganda with tiny bits of historical truth in it, as facts are needed to help people swallow fanciful stories. To modern observers not under the , tales of people living to be nearly a thousand (), or more than 40,000 years () are not taken seriously. But literalist interpretations of ancient texts abound, whether they come from religious fundamentalists or scholars such as and who tried to explain mythical events as if ancient texts depicted literal truth. Promoting is a major component of how modern populations are controlled.
Touching the spirit bear essay help
Forests were a radical innovation that has not been seen before or since. Trees were Earth’s first and last truly gigantic organisms, and the . Why did trees grow so large? It seems to be because they could. Land life gave plants opportunities that aquatic life could not provide, and plants “leapt” at the chance. Lignin, first developed for vascular transport, became the equivalent of steel girders in skyscrapers. In the final analysis, trees grew tall to give their foliage the most sunlight and to use wind and height to spread their seeds, and in the future that height would help protect the foliage from ground-based animal browsers. The height limit of Earth’s trees is an energy issue: the .Arid climates prevent trees from growing tall or even growing at all. Energy availability , too. From an ecosystem’s perspective, the great biomass of forests was primarily a huge store of energy; trees allowed for prodigious energy storage per square meter of land. That stored energy ultimately became a vast resource for the forest ecosystem, as it eventually became food for other life forms and the basis for soils, which in turn became sponges to soak up precipitation and recycle it . Trees created the entire ecosystem that depended on them.
It can be helpful at this juncture to grasp the cumulative impact of , inventing , inventing , inventing that made possible, and inventing . Pound-for-pound, the complex organisms that began to dominate Earth’s ecosphere during the Cambrian Period consumed energy about 100,000 times as fast as the Sun produced it. Life on Earth is an incredibly energy-intensive phenomenon, powered by sunlight. In the end, only so much sunlight reaches Earth, and it has always been life’s primary limiting variable. Photosynthesis became more efficient, aerobic respiration was an order-of-magnitude leap in energy efficiency, the oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans allowed animals to colonize land and ocean sediments and even fly, and life’s colonization of land allowed for a . Life could exploit new niches and even help create them, but the key innovations and pioneering were achieved long ago. If humanity attains the , new niches will arise, even of the , but all other creatures living on Earth have constraints, primarily energy constraints, which produce very real limits. Life on Earth has largely been a for several hundred million years, but the Cambrian Explosion was one of those halcyonic times when animal life had its greatest expansion, not built on the bones of a mass extinction so much as blazing new trails.
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University level sociology essay help
By 1300, Earth was cooling down, High Middle Ages Europe was largely deforested, and nearly all arable land was under the plow. Europe had reached the Malthusian limit of its means of preindustrial production. The 1300s were a century of unending calamity for Europe, beginning with famines in 1304, 1305, and 1310, and a that lasted three years. Famines visited Europe at least once a generation in the 1300s. In 1337, England and France . Those events were only a hint at what lied ahead. Plagues and famines tend to be conjoined: weakened bodies are susceptible to disease. The Black Death pandemic probably originated in war-torn and famine-plagued China . In 1346, it reached Europe. By 1350, and . War, famine, and epidemics were so prevalent in the 1300s that the became an art form in the 1400s and 1500s, after the . Europe became a hell on Earth. But the work that watermills performed was not subject to famine and disease, and the work of millions of “energy slaves” surely helped hold Europe together. Labor was in such shortage after the catastrophes that .
A Level Politics – UK and Global A level Politics Website
Islamic culture enjoyed humanity’s highest standard of living in about 1200, and although Europe was rising in that period, it was also seen as backward compared to the refined cultures of the Eastern Roman Empire (which never lost the ancient Greek teachings) and Islamic lands. But late Medieval Warm Period droughts may have unleashed a scourge that would be unsurpassed in ferocious destruction until the Nazis in the 20th century: the Mongol invasions initiated by . Islam never fully recovered from the Mongol invasions. , and Baghdad was Islam’s leading city before its and wholesale slaughter of its residents. Places such as China, Russia, and Hungary lost up to half of their populations. A recent study suggested that the tens of millions of deaths at the Mongols' hands may have initiated reforestation that absorbed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to such an extent that it helped end the Medieval Warm Period. The impact was only about 1 PPM, and the coming Little Ice Age has , including the Western Hemisphere’s depopulation and reforestation due to the Spanish invasions of the 1500s.
Politics and the English Language - Wikipedia
The medieval Catholic Church owned about a quarter of Europe’s land and constantly vied for power with secular rulers. The Church became infamously corrupt, called for that helped thin out the ranks of its ecstatic members, and even when they strayed from the flock. In the 1200s, among others, attempted to reconcile Church dogma with rediscovered Greek teachings. High Middle Ages Europe also saw the phenomenon, with its themes of chivalry and courtly love.
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